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To assess the short-term impact of a nutritional intervention aimed at reducing childhood overweight in German pre-school children.
Using a cluster-randomized study design with waiting-list controls, we tested a 6-month intervention administered once weekly by a nutrition expert consisting of joint meal preparation and activities for children and parents such as tasting and preparing nutritious, fresh foods. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, a parent-completed questionnaire assessed fruit and vegetable intakes (primary outcomes) and water and sugared drinks consumption (secondary outcomes). Direct measurement assessed BMI, skinfold thickness and waist-to-height-ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis used random-effects panel regression models to assess the intervention effect, adjusted for each child's age, gender, immigrant background and maternal education.
Eighteen pre-schools from three south German regions.
Healthy children aged 3–6 years.
Three hundred and seventy-seven (80 %) eligible pre-school children participated in the study. Of these, 348 provided sufficient data for analysis. The sample mean age was 4·26 (sd 0·78) years; the majority (53·2 %) were boys. Children's fruit and vegetable intakes increased significantly (P < 0·001 and P < 0·05, respectively); no significant changes in the consumption of water, sugared drinks or anthropometric measurements were noted.
Nutritional interventions in pre-schools have the potential to change eating behaviours in young children, which in the long term might reduce risk for developing overweight.
We report a novel concept for the direct integration of capacitors in printed circuit boards using ultra-small BaTiO3 and ZrO2 nanoparticles prepared by a chemical method. Electrical properties comparable to surface mount ceramic capacitors were achieved by proper processing of the nanoparticles, achieving a device-yield of >90% under research environment. The loss factor of the presented integrated capacitors does not exceed 0.05 independent of frequency, capacitor’s electrode area or applied bias voltage.
There is a lack of research on the possible contribution of a structured risk assessment to the reduction of aggression in psychiatric in-patient care
To assess whether such risk assessments decrease the incidence of violence and coercion
A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 14 acute psychiatric admission wards as the units of randomisation, including a preference arm. The intervention comprised a standardised risk assessment following admission with mandatory evaluation of prevention in high-risk patients
Incidence rates decreased substantially in the intervention wards, whereas little change occurred in the control wards. The adjusted risk ratios suggest a 41% reduction in severe aggressive incidents and a 27% decline in the use of coercive measures. The severity of aggressive incidents did not decrease
Structured risk assessment during the first days of treatment may contribute to reduced violence and coercion in acute psychiatric wards
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