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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To explore the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in association with hippocampal and amygdala volumes in ICU survivors. We hypothesize that the severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in ICU survivors is associated with lower volumes of both the hippocampus and amygdala. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Secondary analysis of the VISIONS study, a prospective sub-study of the BRAIN-ICU cohort, which included survivors of critical illness. Patients were screened for preexisting PTSD before discharge. The PTSD Checklist Specific (PCL-S) was used at 3 and 12 months to evaluate the ICU as a traumatic experience. A score of >30, indicated significant symptoms of PTSD. A Philips Achieva 3T MRI scanner was used to scan patients at both discharge and 3-month follow-up. To compare median brain volumes at discharge and 3 months for those with and without significant PTSD symptomatology (PCL-S ≥30) at 3 and 12 months, we used a Kruskal-Wallis (KW) equality-of-populations rank test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The median age for our sample was 58.5 (52.6, 63.7). One-third of the sample was female, and 90% were Caucasian. Fifty-seven percent of individuals (N = 12) had at least one prior mental health diagnosis, with two having a prior history of PTSD. One third of individuals experienced delirium during their critical illness. At 3-month follow up, there were three patients with PTSD symptomatology and one at 12-month follow up. Median brain volumes (hippocampus or amygdala) did not differ between individuals with or without PTSD symptomatology at either 3 or 12 months (p-values for all tests >0.05). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Although our study did not reveal significant differences in brain volumes between PTSD patients and non-PTSD patients, sample size is a major limitation and larger scale studies should be undertaken to elucidate possible neurobiological markers of PTSD in ICU survivors. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Dr. Wilson would like to acknowledge salary support from the Vanderbilt Faculty Research Scholars Program (1KL2TR002245), HL111111 and GM120484. Drs. Ely and Jackson as well as Mrs. Kiehl all receive funding for their time working on this investigation from AG035117 and HL111111. Dr. Ely would additionally like to acknowledge salary support from the Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC). Dr. Ely will also disclose additional funding for his time from AG027472 and having received honoraria from Orion and Hospira for CME activity; he does not hold stock or consultant relationships with those companies. The authors would like to acknowledge the following: this work was conducted in part using the resources of the Center for Computational Imaging at Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science and the Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, and study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Vanderbilt University.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Delirium, a form of acute brain dysfunction, characterized by changes in attention and alertness, is a known independent predictor of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We sought to understand whether catatonia, a more recently recognized form of acute brain dysfunction, is associated with increased 30-day mortality in critically ill older adults. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Coma, was defined as a Richmond Agitation Scale score of −4 or −5. We used the Cox Proportional Hazards model predicting 30-day mortality after adjusting for delirium, coma and catatonia status. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We enrolled 335 medical, surgical or trauma critically ill patients with 1103 matched delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 58 years (IQR: 48 - 67). Main indications for admission to the ICU included: airway disease or protection (32%; N=100) or sepsis and/or shock (25%; N=79. In the unadjusted analysis, regardless of the presence of catatonia, non-delirious individuals have the highest median survival times, while delirious patients have the lowest median survival time. Comparing the absence and presence of catatonia, the presence of catatonia worsens survival (Figure 1). In a time-dependent Cox model, comparing non-delirious individuals, holding catatonia status constant, delirious individuals have 1.72 times the hazards of death (IQR: 1.321, 2.231) while those with coma have 5.48 times the hazards of death (IQR: 4.298, 6.984). For DSM-5 catatonia scores, a 1-unit increase in the score is associated with 1.18 times the hazards of in-hospital mortality. Comparing two individuals with the same delirium status, an individual with a DSM-5 catatonia score of 0 (no catatonia) will have 1.178 times the hazard of death (IQR: 1.086, 1.278), while an individual with a score of 3 catatonia items (catatonia) present will have 1.63 times the hazard of death. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Non-delirious individuals have the highest median survival times, while those who are comatose have the lowest median survival times after a critical illness, holding catatonia status constant. Comparing the absence and presence of catatonia, the presence of catatonia seems to worsen survival. Those individual who are both comatose and catatonic have the lowest median survival time.
Many patients with advanced serious illness or at the end of life experience delirium, a potentially reversible form of acute brain dysfunction, which may impair ability to participate in medical decision-making and to engage with their loved ones. Screening for delirium provides an opportunity to address modifiable causes. Unfortunately, delirium remains underrecognized. The main objective of this pilot was to validate the brief Confusion Assessment Method (bCAM), a two-minute delirium-screening tool, in a veteran palliative care sample.
This was a pilot prospective, observational study that included hospitalized patients evaluated by the palliative care service at a single Veterans’ Administration Medical Center. The bCAM was compared against the reference standard, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Both assessments were blinded and conducted within 30 minutes of each other.
We enrolled 36 patients who were a median of 67 years (interquartile range 63–73). The primary reasons for admission to the hospital were sepsis or severe infection (33%), severe cardiac disease (including heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and myocardial infarction) (17%), or gastrointestinal/liver disease (17%). The bCAM performed well against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, for detecting delirium, with a sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of 0.80 (0.4, 0.96) and specificity of 0.87 (0.67, 0.96).
Significance of Results
Delirium was present in 27% of patients enrolled and never recognized by the palliative care service in routine clinical care. The bCAM provided good sensitivity and specificity in a pilot of palliative care patients, providing a method for nonpsychiatrically trained personnel to detect delirium.