To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In China, as is the case in most of the world, family is the largest source of support for frail older adults. Confucian filial piety expectations hold children-in particular sons-responsible for the care of aging parents in China. During the course of caregiving, in addition to positive feelings, the caregiver may feel overwhelmed, entrapped, and worried about their performance, which can have negative health consequences. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine one dimension of caregiver burden “worry about performance” (WaP) and investigate whether variables inspired by Pearlin's Stress Process Model help to explain the variation of WaP, so that at-risk caregivers can be identified and supported.
Multiple regression was used to analyze CLHLS data from 895 Chinese adult children providing care for their oldest old parent in eight coastal provinces in China. WaP was measured by two items from the Zarit Burden Inventory. Independent variables representing concepts from Pearlin's Stress Process Model and control variables were included in the models.
Compared to a model of control variables only, using independent variables inspired by Pearlin's Stress Process Model increased the ability to explain the variation in WaP by three fold to 14%. The following variables increased WaP: parent's IADL level, the amount of time spent caregiving, being a daughter, reporting an emotionally close relationship with the parent, sharing a residence with the parent.
Despite not being able to fully operationalize Pearlin's Model with this dataset, analyzing variables that represent concepts from the model was useful in increasing the ability to explain the variation in WaP. Results suggest that caregiver support directed at daughters may be particularly beneficial.
Immigration disrupts the bonding process in families. Maintaining close relationships with adult children can be an important protective factor for older immigrants' health and wellbeing. Quantitative research explaining such close relationships is rare. This study examined factors associated with close parent–child relationships in a purposive sample of 236 older Chinese immigrants in Los Angeles who provided information regarding 365 children. Two-level regression models were estimated to investigate factors contributing to cohesive parent–child relationships among these older adults. The findings showed that co-residence, a characteristic that distinguishes immigrant families from most non-immigrant families, was associated with lower parent–child relationship quality. Frequent contact was associated with closer relationships. While receiving instrumental and monetary support from children was associated with favourable ratings of relationships with children, providing such support to children was not related to parents' assessment of relationship quality. Parental perceptions of children being respectful was also associated with better relationship quality ratings. Overall, the findings demonstrate how family-related changes in the immigration context shape parent–child relationships in later life. Implications for future research and practice are provided.
This study confirms the existence of several nanometer-ordered structures in amorphous Al2O3–2SiO2–Na2O–7H2O geopolymers by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The composition ratio of the geopolymers was designed according to the NaA zeolite composition (Si/Al/Na atom ratio of 1:1:1), and the expected NaA molecular sieve was achieved by the Al2O3–2SiO2–Na2O–7H2O geopolymers through a hydrothermal reaction. This design concept was used to convert geopolymers into zeolite molecular sieves and provides a new preparation method for zeolite membranes or zeolite bulk materials.