Ytterbium-doped fibers have become the optimum gain media of high-power fiber lasers thanks to a simple energy structure, which strongly reduces the excited state absorption, and a low quantum defect and a high optic–optic conversion efficiency, which means the low thermal load. In this paper, we take a review of the current state of the art in terms of
doped fibers for high-power fiber lasers, including the development of the fabrication techniques. The research work to overcome the challenges for
doped fibers, which affect the stability of output power and beam quality, will be demonstrated. Direction of further research is presented and the goal is to look for a fiber design, to boost single fiber output power, stabilize the laser power and support robust single-mode operation.