Polyurethanes (PU) have been widely used as biomaterial in recent years, while thrombus may still occur when contacting with blood especially for extended period of time. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and phosphorylcholine (PC)-based polymers are commonly employed for surface modification to create protein repellent surfaces. PC-based polymers have been investigated as biomimetic materials because PC is the major component in the outer layer of cell membranes. In this study, the biomimetic copolymer brush of PEG-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) on PU surfaces was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a surface initiator. The flexible PEG chain was 200 g·mol-1, while the poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)) chain length was controlled by the ratio of monomer to sacrificial initiator in solution. The topology of the modified surfaces was characterized by the phase image of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the synergy effect between PEG chains and poly(MPC) chains. The unmodified and modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle and platelet adhesion. The results demonstrated that efficient grafting of PEG-b-poly(MPC) brushes on the surfaces was achieved. The PU surfaces modified with PEG and phosphorylcholine zwitterionic brushes showed effective resistance to platelet adhesion and high hemocompatibility in vitro. These PEG and PC-grafted PU materials might be potentially applied in blood-contacting materials or devices due to their good mechanical and hemocompatible properties.