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During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, people in north China took advantage of a Mongol policy that gave Buddhist officials a status equivalent to what civil officials enjoyed, as a strategy for family advancement. Monk Zhang Zhiyu and his family provide a case study of an emerging influential Buddhist order based at Mount Wutai that connected the Yuan regime with local communities through the kinship ties of prominent monks. Within this Buddhist order, powerful monks like Zhiyu used their prestigious positions in the clerical world to help the upward social mobility of their lay families, displaying a distinctive pattern of interpenetration between Buddhism and family. This new pattern also fit the way that northern Chinese families used Buddhist structures such as Zunsheng Dhāranῑ pillars and private Buddhist chapels to record their genealogies and consolidate kinship ties.
As a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, Salecan has an excellent toxicological profile and exerts multiple physiological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of a Salecan diet in the well-defined dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental murine colitis and to elucidate the mechanism involved in its effects with special attention being paid to its effect on the production of TNF-α, a primary mediator involved in the inflammatory response. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with either 4 or 8 % Salecan for 26 d and DSS was administered to induce acute colitis during the last 5 d of the experimental period. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α and Dectin-1 were evaluated. The results indicated that the dietary incorporation of Salecan attenuated the severity of DSS colitis as evidenced by the decreased disease activity index, reduced severity of anaemia, attenuated changes in colon architecture and reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with the down-regulation of TNF-α mRNA levels, which might derive from its ability to increase Dectin-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Salecan contributes to the reduction of colonic damage and inflammation in mice with DSS-induced colitis and holds promise as a new, effective nutritional supplement in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.
The pullback asymptotic behavior of the solutions for 2D Nonau-tonomous G-Navier-Stokes equations is studied, and the existence of its L2-pullback attractors on some bounded domains with Dirichlet boundary conditions is investigated by using the measure of noncompactness. Then the estimation of the fractal dimensions for the 2D G-Navier-Stokes equations is given.
Furniture contaminated with uranium will be disposed of, together with U-bearing waste, in ageological repository such as the WIPP site in New Mexico. It is important to understand the effect of the wooden furniture on the migration of uranium in order to predict long-term behavior of uranium in a geological repository environment. In this paper, we present natural uraninite-bearing carbonized wood pieces from a sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium ore deposit in NW China. Results from SEM and TEM observations show that there are nanometer sized, and micron-sized, uraninite crystals that have accumulated on cell walls of the carbonized wood. Some uranitite crystrals display oval and round shapes that may be the result of microbial-induced reduction of uranium from groundwater. The wood carbonized fragments are the most uranium-rich “phase.” In some areas, aggregates of pyrite crystals occur withthe uraninite. It is proposed that organic components from the decay of the wood cells provide nutrientsfor the anaerobic bacteria to grow. The wood pieces with the bacteria inside may serve as scavengers of uranium because of the local reducing chemical environment.
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