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RNA delivery into deep tissues with dense extracellular matrix (ECM) has been challenging. For example, cartilage is a major barrier for RNA and drug delivery due to its avascular structure, low cell density and strong negative surface charge. Cartilage ECM is comprised of collagens, proteoglycans, and various other noncollagneous proteins with a spacing of 20nm. Conventional nanoparticles are usually spherical with a diameter larger than 50-60nm (after cargo loading). Therefore, they presented limited success for RNA delivery into cartilage. Here, we developed Janus base nanotubes (JBNTs, self-assembled nanotubes inspired from DNA base pairs) to assemble with small RNAs to form nano-rod delivery vehicles (termed as “Nanopieces”). Nanopieces have a diameter of ∼20nm (smallest delivery vehicles after cargo loading) and a length of ∼100nm. They present a novel breakthrough in ECM penetration due to the reduced size and adjustable characteristics to encourage ECM and intracellular penetration.
The effect of Mg in Ag(Mg)/SiO2/Si multilayers on the adhesion, passivation, and resistivity following vacuum annealing at 200–500 °C has been investigated. The annealing of Ag(Mg)/SiO2/Si multilayers produced surface and interfacial MgO layers, resulting in a MgO/Ag/MgO/SiO2/Si structure. The formation of a surface MgO/Ag bilayer structure provided excellent passivation against air and CF4 plasma chemistry. In addition, the adhesion of Ag to SiO2 was improved due to the formation of an interfacial MgO layer resulting from the reaction of segregated Mg with SiO2. However, the negligible solubility of Si in Ag prevented the dissolution of free silicon into the Ag(Mg) film produced from the reaction Mg + SiO2 = MgO + free Si, which in turn limited the reaction between Mg and SiO2, which led to a decrease in the adhesion of Ag to SiO2 at the higher temperature. The use of an O2 plasma prior to Ag(Mg) alloy deposition on SiO2 produced an oxygen-rich surface on the SiO2, which allowed for the enhanced reaction of the segregated Mg and SiO2 at the surface, thus resulting in markedly increased adhesion properties.
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