To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is clinically heterogeneous and commonly presents with different patterns of cognitive deficits. It is unclear if this clinical heterogeneity expresses a dimensional or categorical difference in ADHD.
We first studied differences in functional connectivity in multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquired from 80 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 123 matched healthy controls. We then used canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to identify latent relationships between symptoms and patterns of altered functional connectivity (dimensional biotype) in patients. Clustering methods were implemented to test if the individual associations between resting-state brain connectivity and symptoms reflected a non-overlapping categorical biotype.
Adults with ADHD showed stronger functional connectivity compared to healthy controls, predominantly between the default-mode, cingulo-opercular and subcortical networks. CCA identified a single mode of brain–symptom co-variation, corresponding to an ADHD dimensional biotype. This dimensional biotype is characterized by a unique combination of altered connectivity correlating with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, and intelligence. Clustering analyses did not support the existence of distinct categorical biotypes of adult ADHD.
Overall, our data advance a novel finding that the reduced functional segregation between default-mode and cognitive control networks supports a clinically important dimensional biotype of childhood-onset adult ADHD. Despite the heterogeneity of its presentation, our work suggests that childhood-onset adult ADHD is a single disorder characterized by dimensional brain–symptom mediators.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.