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The aim was to assess epidemiological characteristics of the most recent consumption patterns of meat, vegetable, and fruit among representative urban and rural residents aged 60+ years in regional China. In this cross-sectional survey conducted in mid-2018, participants aged 60+ years were randomly chosen from urban and rural communities in Nanjing municipality of China. Meat, vegetable, and fruit intake were assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) to investigate the association of socio-demographic characteristics with a likelihood of meeting intake recommendation. Among the 20 867 participants, 49⋅5 % were men and 45⋅0 % urban elders, and 6⋅5 % aged 80+ years. The mean values of consumption frequency of red meat, white meat, vegetable, and fruit were 2⋅99 ± 2⋅28, 1⋅37 ± 1⋅13, 5⋅24 ± 6⋅43, and 2⋅64 ± 2⋅91 times/week, respectively, among overall participants. Moreover, there were 14⋅9, 23⋅7, and 12⋅1 % of participants meeting intake recommendations of meat, vegetable, and fruit, separately, in this study. After adjustment for potential confounders, age, gender, residence area, and educational attainment each was associated with the likelihood of meeting intake recommendation of meat, vegetable, or fruit. The consumption frequency and proportion of participants meeting intake recommendations of meat, vegetable, or fruit were not high among elders in regional China. Socio-demographic characteristics were associated with intake recommendations of meat, vegetables, and fruit. It has public health implications that participants’ socio-demographic attributes shall be considered for precision intervention on meat, vegetable, and fruit consumption in healthy eating campaigns among elders in China.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is an ion channelopathy, caused by mutations in genes coding for calcium-handling proteins. It can coexist with left ventricular non-compaction. We aim to investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of this co-phenotype.
Medical records of 24 patients diagnosed with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in two Chinese hospitals between September, 2005, and January, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated their clinical and genetic characteristics, including basic demographic data, electrocardiogram parameters, medications and survival during follow-up, and their gene mutations. We did structural analysis for a novel variant ryanodine receptor 2-E4005V.
The patients included 19 with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mono-phenotype and 5 catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-left ventricular non-compaction overlap patients. The median age of onset symptoms was 9.0 (8.0,13.5) years. Most patients (91.7%) had cardiac symptoms, and 50% had a family history of syncope. Overlap patients had lower peak heart rate and threshold heart rate for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular premature beat during the exercise stress test (p < 0.05). Sudden cardiac death risk may be higher in overlap patients during follow-up. Gene sequencing revealed 1 novel ryanodine receptor 2 missense mutation E4005V and 1 mutation previously unreported in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, but no left ventricular non-compaction-causing mutations were observed. In-silico analysis showed the novel mutation E4005V broke down the interaction between two charged residues.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia overlapping with left ventricular non-compaction may lead to ventricular premature beat/ventricular tachycardia during exercise stress test at lower threshold heart rate than catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia alone; it may also indicate a worse prognosis and requires strict follow-up. ryanodine receptor 2 mutations disrupted interactions between residues and may interfere the function of ryanodine receptor 2.
Advertising plays a crucial role in modern commercial society as a means of information transmission. It not only affects consumers’ purchasing decisions but may also have a particular impact on their mental health. This study explores in depth how innovative advertising design strategies affect consumer psychology, focusing on their potential impact on patients with borderline personality disorders.
Subjects and Methods
The experiment used three methods: questionnaire survey, psychological experiment, and in-depth interview to select 800 consumers, including 100 diagnosed borderline personality disorder patients, for a 6-month observation experiment. The Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) self-test was used to evaluate the patient’s status. The experimental data was statistically analyzed using SPSS 26.0.
Research shows that innovative advertising design strategies can significantly enhance consumers’ interest and willingness to purchase products, with 80% of respondents indicating an impulse to purchase after being influenced by such advertisements. However, for 60% of patients with borderline personality disorder, such advertisements may trigger impulsive purchases and emotional instability, and patients report feeling more anxious and unstable.
Innovative advertising design strategies significantly impact consumer psychology, promoting their willingness to purchase. Still, they may also have adverse psychological effects on specific groups, especially patients with borderline personality disorders.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia (SP), refers to a common mental disorder in which patients are afraid of doing things in front of others or engaging in social activities in public. If exposed to this environment, patients may experience anxiety or panic attacks. At present, the main psychological methods for treating social anxiety disorders in clinical practice include cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, analytical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, Morita therapy, and so on.
Subjects and Methods
This study focused on 130 students with generalized social anxiety disorder, who were divided into two groups. A control group of 75 individuals received conventional cognitive behavioral therapy. The experimental group adopted cognitive behavioral therapy combined with mental health education content. Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used for diagnosis in the experiment.
The experimental results showed that before intervention, the two groups exhibited corresponding symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity, terror, anxiety, and hostility. After a 12-day intervention, the experimental group showed lower scores in terms of sensitivity, terror, anxiety, and hostility compared to the control group.
Based on the preliminary results of this study, it can be inferred that cognitive behavioral therapy combined with mental health education is an effective method for treating social anxiety disorder.
The independent innovation Fund project for doctoral students of Xinjiang Normal University (No. XJNUJKYA2108).
The aims of this study were to examine the spillover effects of violent attacks, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) exposure, and their interactions on health professionals’ mental health, and the role of organizational support in their relationships in China. A two-phase survey data (n = 10,901) before and after the first outbreak of COVID-19 was integrated with regional macro data on the number of lawsuit cases of violent attacks and COVID-19 cases. Three studies were designed to isolate the general spillover impact of violent attacks on the mental health of health professionals, how COVID-19 affects the mental health of health professionals, and whether organizational support moderates the relationship between violent attacks and mental health through econometric regressions. Violent attacks and COVID-19 are negatively associated with the mental health of health professionals, and the outbreak of COVID-19 adversely deteriorates the spillover effects of violent attacks. Physicians, not nurses, are the most affected group. Better perceived support from hospitals can significantly mitigate the adverse effects of COVID-19, violent attacks, and their interactions on the mental health of health professionals. COVID-19 deteriorates the adverse effects of violent attacks on the mental health of health professionals, while better organizational support is helpful to mitigate these effects.
The penultimate deglaciation was characterized by a sub-millennial-scale warm event in the Heinrich Stadial 11(HS11), termed the 134-ka event. However, its precise timing and structure remain poorly constrained due to the lack of high-resolution and precisely dated records. We present an oxygen isotope record of a speleothem with well-developed annual lamina from Zhangjia Cave, located on the north margin of the Sichuan Basin, characterizing Asian summer monsoon (ASM) changes in the 134-ka event, which included an increase excursion of ca. 149 years and decrease excursion of ca. 200 years, inferred from 3.3‰ δ18O variations. This event also divided the weak ASM interval-II (WMI-II), corresponding to HS11, into two stages, the WMI-IIa 132.8–134.1 ka and WMI-IIb 134.4–136.4 ka. With a comparable climatic pattern globally, the 134-ka event is essentially similar to the millennial-scale events in last glacial–deglacial period. Particularly, the observed weak-strong-weak ASM sequence (138.8–132.8 ka) is largely controlled by changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) forced by the meltwater of northern high-latitude ice sheets. Moreover, our results underpin that AMOC, rather than the global ice volume, is more critical to ASM variations during the last two deglaciations.
We explored the transmission mechanisms of corporate fraud and its punishments within social network communities. Using fraud triangle theory and trust triangle theory, we hypothesize four transmitting channels of how fraud commission and detection are affected by peers’ fraud and punishment. Based on Chinese listed corporations from 2008 to 2018, we first construct and detect interlocked social network communities with a community-detecting algorithm, and then examine hypotheses using a bivariate probit model with partial observability. Our findings indicate that peer-concealing and -hinting effects exist within social network communities. The peer-concealing effect decreases the likelihood of being detected when committing fraud, for those with more and closer fraudulent peers. The peer-hinting effect increases the likelihood of being detected when committing fraud, for those with more and closer punished peers. There is no evidence to support peer-contagion and vicarious-punishment effects. Thus, an improved understanding of the transmission mechanism of corporate fraud commission and detection within communities is provided to prevent and detect corporate fraud. In addition, stakeholders and regulators should be aware of the deviant subculture and social distancing in social network communities.
The random distributed-feedback fiber laser (RFL) is a new approach to obtain a high-power stable supercontinuum (SC) source. To consider both structure simplification and high-power SC output, an innovative structure achieving a kilowatt-level SC output in a single-stage RFL with a half-open cavity is demonstrated in this paper. It consists of a fiber oscillator, a piece of long passive fiber and a broadband coupler, among which the broadband coupler acting as a feedback device is crucial in SC generation. When the system has no feedback, the backward output power is up to 298 W under the pump power of 1185 W. When the feedback is introduced before the pump laser, the backward power loss can be reduced and the pump can be fully utilized, which could promote forward output power and conversion efficiency significantly. Under the maximum pump power of 1847 W, a 1300 W SC with spectrum ranging from 887 to 1920 nm and SC conversion efficiency of 66% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, it is the simplest structure used for high-power SC generation, and both the generated SC output power and the conversion efficiency are highest in the scheme of the half-opened RFL output SC.
The age-related heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has received significant attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such heterogeneity still need further investigation. This study aimed to explore the common and distinct functional brain abnormalities across different age groups of MDD patients from a large-sample, multicenter analysis.
The analyzed sample consisted of a total of 1238 individuals including 617 MDD patients (108 adolescents, 12–17 years old; 411 early-middle adults, 18–54 years old; and 98 late adults, > = 55 years old) and 621 demographically matched healthy controls (60 adolescents, 449 early-middle adults, and 112 late adults). MDD-related abnormalities in brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns were investigated in each age group separately and using the whole pooled sample, respectively.
We found shared FC reductions among the sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks across all three age groups of MDD patients. Furthermore, adolescent patients uniquely exhibited increased sensorimotor-subcortical FC; early-middle adult patients uniquely exhibited decreased visual-subcortical FC; and late adult patients uniquely exhibited wide FC reductions within the subcortical, default-mode, cingulo-opercular, and attention networks. Analysis of covariance models using the whole pooled sample further revealed: (1) significant main effects of age group on FCs within most brain networks, suggesting that they are decreased with aging; and (2) a significant age group × MDD diagnosis interaction on FC within the default-mode network, which may be reflective of an accelerated aging-related decline in default-mode FCs.
To summarize, these findings may deepen our understanding of the age-related biological and clinical heterogeneity in MDD.
We report a Yb-doped all-fiber laser system generating burst-mode pulses with high energy and high peak power at a GHz intra-burst repetition rate. To acquire the uniform burst envelope, a double-pre-compensation structure with an arbitrary waveform laser diode driver and an acoustic optical modulator is utilized for the first time. The synchronous pumping is utilized for the system to reduce the burst repetition rate to 100 Hz and suppress the amplified spontaneous emission effect. By adjusting the gain of every stage, uniform envelopes with different output energies can be easily obtained. The intra-burst repetition rate can be tuned from 0.5 to 10 GHz actively modulated by an electro-optic modulator. Optimized by timing control of eight channels of analog signal and amplified by seven stages of Yb-doped fiber amplifier, the pulse energy achieves 13.3 mJ at 0.5 ns intra-burst pulse duration, and the maximum peak power reaches approximately 3.6 MW at 48 ps intra-burst pulse duration. To the best of our knowledge, for reported burst-mode all-fiber lasers, this is a record for output energy and peak power with nanosecond-level burst duration, and the widest tuning range of the intra-burst repetition rate. In particular, this flexibly tunable burst-mode laser system can be directly applied to generate high-power frequency-tunable microwaves.
Glacier surface albedo dominates glacier energy balance, thus strongly affecting the glacier mass balance. Glaciers in the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains (WNM) experienced large mass losses in the past two decades, but long-term changes of glacier albedo and its drivers are less understood. In this study, we retrieved glacier albedo with MODIS reflectance data to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of albedo from 2001 to 2020. Air temperature, rainfall, snowfall and deposition of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) were evaluated as potential drivers of the observed variability in glacier albedo. The results showed that: (1) the glacier albedo experienced large inter-annual fluctuations, with the mean albedo being 0.552 ± 0.002 and a clear decreasing trend of 0.0443 ± 2 × 10−4 dec−1 in the WNM. The fastest decline was observed in autumn and in the vicinity of the equilibrium line altitude, indicating an extended melt season and an expansion of the ablation region to higher elevation; (2) local meteorology and LAIs deposition are the main drivers of glacier albedo change, but their effects on seasonal albedos are different due to different glacier processes. Both air temperature and the balance between liquid and solid precipitation affect summer and autumn albedos due to glacier ablation. Air temperature is the main driver of spring and winter albedos due to sublimation and metamorphism of snow, while snowfall carried by westerlies has limited influence on these two seasonal albedos due to less snowfall. LAIs mainly affect spring albedo due to high concentration coupled with the southerly wind in spring. These findings highlight the significance of changes in glacier albedo and the key role of local meteorology and LAIs deposition in determining such changes, which play an important role in glaciological and cryosphere processes.
Childhood is a critical period for muscle accumulation. Studies in elders have reported that antioxidant vitamins could improve muscle health. However, limited studies have assessed such associations in children. This study included 243 boys and 183 girls. A seventy-nine-item FFQ was used to investigate dietary nutrients intake. Plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with MS. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and total body fat. The ASM index (ASMI) and ASMI Z-score were then calculated. Hand grip strength was measured using a Jamar® Plus+ Hand Dynamometer. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that for each unit increase in plasma retinol content, ASM, ASMI, left HGS and ASMI Z-score increased by 2·43 × 10−3 kg, 1·33 × 10−3 kg/m2, 3·72 × 10−3 kg and 2·45 × 10−3 in girls, respectively (P < 0·001–0·050). ANCOVA revealed a dose–response relationship between tertiles of plasma retinol level and muscle indicators (Ptrend: 0·001–0·007). The percentage differences between the top and bottom tertiles were 8·38 %, 6·26 %, 13·2 %, 12·1 % and 116 % for ASM, ASMI, left HGS, right HGS and ASMI Z-score in girls, respectively (Pdiff: 0·005–0·020). No such associations were observed in boys. Plasma α-tocopherol levels were not correlated with muscle indicators in either sex. In conclusion, high circulating retinol levels are positively associated with muscle mass and strength in school-age girls.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
Parametric interaction allows both forward and backward energy transfers among the three interacting waves. The back-conversion effect is usually detrimental when unidirectional energy transfer is desired. In this theoretical work, we manifest that the back-conversion effect underpins the direct generation of the picosecond pulse train without the need for a laser resonator. The research scenario is an optical parametric amplification (OPA) that consists of a second-order nonlinear medium, a quasi-continuous pump laser and a sinusoidal amplitude-modulated seed signal. The back-conversion of OPA can transfer the modulation peaks (valleys) of the incident signal into output valleys (peaks), which inherently induces spectral sidebands. The generation of each sideband is naturally accompanied with a phase shift of ±π. In the regime of full-back-conversion, the amount and amplitude of the sidebands reach the maximum simultaneously, and their phase constitutes an arithmetic sequence, leading to the production of a picosecond pulse train. The generated picosecond pulse train can have an ultrahigh repetition rate of 40 GHz or higher, which may facilitate ultrafast applications with ultrahigh speed.
Given inevitable age-related decreases in physical or mental capacity, studies on health-related behaviour (HRB) clustering in older people provide an opportunity to reduce health-care costs and promote healthy ageing. This study explores the clustering of HRBs and transition probabilities of cluster memberships over time, and compares sociodemographic characteristics of these clusters among Chinese and Japanese middle-aged and older adults. Using the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) from 2011 to 2015 (N = 19614) and the Japanese Study of Ageing and Retirement (JSTAR) from 2007 to 2011 (N = 7,080), Latent Transition Analysis was applied to investigate the clustering and change in clustering memberships of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the sociodemographic characteristics of these longitudinal HRB cluster members. We identified four common clusters in CHARLS and JSTAR: ‘smoking’, ‘overweight or obese’, ‘healthy lifestyle’ and ‘current smoking with drinking’, and an additional cluster named ‘ex-smoking with drinking’ in JSTAR. Although HRB cluster members were largely stable in both cohorts, participants in China tended to move towards an unhealthy lifestyle, while participants in Japan did the opposite. We also found that participants who smoked and drank were more likely to be male, younger, less educated and unmarried in both cohorts, but the overweight or obese participants were female, urban and higher income in CHARLS but not JSTAR. Our study not only contributes to the knowledge of longitudinal changes in health-related behavioural clustering patterns in an Asian elderly population, but may also facilitate the design of targeted multi-behavioural interventions to promote healthy lifestyles among older people in both countries.