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Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Pulse contrast is a crucial parameter of high peak-power lasers since the prepulse noise may disturb laser–plasma interactions. Contrast measurement is thus a prerequisite to tackle the contrast challenge in high peak-power lasers. This paper presents the progress review of single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) for real-time contrast characterization. We begin with the key technologies that enable an SSCC to simultaneously possess high dynamic range (
), large temporal window (50–70 ps) and high fidelity. We also summarize the instrumentation of SSCC prototypes and their applications on five sets of petawatt laser facilities in China. Finally, we discuss how to extend contrast measurements from time domain to spatiotemporal domain. Real-time and high-dynamic-range contrast measurements, provided by SSCC, can not only characterize various complex noises in high peak-power lasers but also guide the system optimization.
Biodegradable poly(lactide acid) (PLA) has been well-studied as a shape memory polymer in recent years, but the brittleness and relatively high Tg limit its applications. In this study, a series of PLA/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blends were manufactured by using the solvent evaporation method. The thermal behaviors, morphology, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties of the samples with different contents of PEG have been experimentally studied by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electronic microscopy, water contact angle, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile test. Furthermore, the influence of PEG on the shape memory properties under different loading conditions including the stretch strain, recovery temperature, deformation temperature, and tensile rate were explored systematically. Experimental results reveal that introduction of appropriate contents of the plasticizer PEG into the PLA/PEG systems results in the significant improvement of morphology, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties while the high shape memory properties are still retained.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend χ2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (χ2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
TiO2 nanomaterials with platelet or nanosheet morphologies can offer improved properties for photocatalytic applications, but established methods to produce them typically require structure-directing agents since anatase-phase TiO2 does not have a layered structure. In the present work, the preparation of TiO2 nanosheets by the chemical oxidation of TiS2 nanosheets is demonstrated. Electrochemical exfoliation of bulk TiS2 into TiS2 nanosheets, followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 14 h is performed. The results show that polycrystalline TiO2 nanosheets with the anatase structure are formed, and that the nanosheet morphology can still be maintained after the hydrothermal treatment. The TiO2 nanosheets show good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue, but the performance is negatively affected by the residual carbon black that was needed in the TiS2 electrode to enable electrochemical exfoliation. These results show that conversion of TiS2 nanosheets to TiO2 nanosheets is a promising synthetic strategy but highlights how the interfacial properties of the obtained materials could be affected by ancillary components in the preparation method.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats fed NPD served as controls. The level of proteinuria and expression of renin, angiotensin II (AngII) and its type 1 receptors (AT1R) in the renal cortex were markedly higher in Nx-NPD group than in the sham group. LPD+KA significantly decreased the proteinuria and inhibited intrarenal RAS activation. To exclude renal haemodynamic impact on intrarenal RAS, the serum samples derived from the different groups were added to the culture medium of mesangial cells. It showed that the serum from Nx-NPD directly induced higher expression of AngII, AT1R, fibronectin and transforming growth factor-β1 in the mesangial cells than in the control group. Nx-LPD+KA serum significantly inhibited these abnormalities. Then, proteomics and biochemical detection suggested that the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of LPD+KA might be amelioration of the nutritional metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. In conclusion, LPD+KA could directly inhibit the intrarenal RAS activation, independently of renal haemodynamics, thus attenuating the proteinuria in CKD rats.
Maize in Canada is grown mainly in the south-eastern part of the country. No comprehensive studies on Canadian maize yield levels have been done so far to analyse the barriers of obtaining optimal yields associated with cultivar, environmental stress and agronomic management practices. The objective of the current study was to use a modelling approach to analyse the gaps between actual and potential (determined by cultivar, solar radiation and temperature without any other stresses) maize yields in Eastern Canada. The CSM–CERES–Maize model in DSSAT v4·6 was calibrated and evaluated with measured data of seven cultivars under different nitrogen (N) rates across four sites. The model was then used to simulate grain yield levels defined as: yield potential (YP), water-limited (YW, rainfed), and water- and N-limited yields with N rates 80 kg/ha (YW, N-80N) and 160 kg/ha (YW, N-160N). The options were assessed to further increase grain yield by analysing the yield gaps related to water and N deficiencies. The CSM–CERES–Maize model simulated the grain yields in the experiments well with normalized root-mean-squared errors <0·20. The model was able to capture yield variations associated with varying N rates, cultivar, soil type and inter-annual climate variability. The seven calibrated cultivars used in the experiments were divided into three grades according to their simulated YP: low, medium and high. The simulation results for the 30-year period from 1981 to 2010 showed that the average YP was 15 000 kg/ha for cultivars with high yield potential. The YP is generally about 6000 kg/ha greater than the actual yield (YA) at each experimental site in Eastern Canada. Two-thirds of this gap between YP and YA is probably associated with water stress, as a gap of approximately 4000 kg/ha between the YW and the YP was simulated. This gap may be reduced through crop management, such as introducing irrigation to improve the distribution of available water during the growing season. The simulated yields indicated a gap of about 3000 and 1000 kg/ha between YW and YW,N-80N for cultivars with high YP and low YP, respectively. The gap between YW and YW,N-160N decreased to <2000 kg/ha for high Yp cultivars with little difference for the low Yp cultivars. The different yield gaps among cultivars suggest that cultivars with high YP require high N rates but cultivars with low YP may need only low N rates.
Using trait activation theory as a framework, this study developed and tested a cross-level model of individual innovative behavior. Data from a sample of 334 employees within 75 work teams were used to examine the hypothesized model. Results showed that employee learning goal orientation was positively related to innovative behavior only when the team structure was more organic. Additionally, the relationship between employee learning goal orientation and innovative behavior would be strongest when both the team structure was more organic and team mean learning goal orientation was higher.
In this paper, a new technical scheme of high-voltage, long-pulse generator, mostly based on solid-state power devices, including magnetic pulse compressor, Blumlein-type rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) and inductive voltage adder (IVA), is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The generator has potential advantages of high average power level, high repetitive rate capability, long lifetime, and long pulse achievability, which meet the requirements of military and industrial application of the pulsed power technology. Specifically, a two-stage magnetic pulse compressor was set up with iron-based amorphous cores. Total compression ratio of the device is approximately 12 and the achieved voltage efficiency is up to 92%. Low impedance, long-duration Blumlein-type RSPFL was established with characteristic impendence and electrical length of 3 Ω and 100 ns, respectively. Mylar film was selected as the solid-state dielectric. Increased by a four-stage IVA, typical quasi-square pulse was obtained with peak current of 2.3 kA and duration over 200 ns. As the resistance of the dummy load was measured to be 60 Ω, the peak voltage was approximately 138 kV. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.
Although the current literature offers some preliminary information about seeking feedback from various sources, a variable-centered approach has been adopted in which seeking feedback from supervisors and from subordinates was treated separately. We endeavored to extend this work through model-based cluster analysis, a person-centered approach, to identify distinct feedback source profiles in our sample of 209 front-line manager–supervisor dyads. Additionally, we aimed to explore whether such profiles differed between two feedback motives, perceived instrumental value and perceived image cost, as well as managers’ emotion regulation strategies. Results revealed six feedback source profiles and such profiles are associated not only with their perceived image cost and instrumental value but also with their emotion regulation strategies.
Future time orientation is essential if an employee is to be motivated to conduct activities that generate long-term rather than immediate gain, and which may involve risk. Given that feedback seeking requires the employee to slow down and seek input, it is surprising that little is known about the relationship between future time orientation and feedback seeking. Drawing upon psychological ownership theory and construal-level theory, we hypothesized a positive influence of future time orientation on feedback seeking from various sources (i.e., supervisors and co-workers). We also hypothesized job-based psychological ownership as a newly identified motive of feedback seeking and employed it to explain how future time orientation exerts influences. Tested with data from a sample of 228 subordinate–supervisor dyads from China, the results revealed that (1) future time orientation was positively related to feedback seeking from supervisors and co-workers and (2) job-based psychology ownership mediated the relationship between future time orientation and feedback seeking.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional phosphoprotein that is detected in various tissues, including male and female reproductive tracts. In this study, we evaluated OPN expression in mouse oviducts during the estrus cycle, and at days 1–5 of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. The mice oocytes, sperm and embryos were treated with different concentrations of anti-OPN antibody in vitro to detect the function of OPN in fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. OPN mRNA and protein expression in mouse oviducts were cyclic dependent throughout the estrous cycle, which was highest at estrous and lowest at diestrous. Such a phenomenon was consistent with the change in estrogen level in mice. The expression levels of OPN in mice oviduct of normal pregnancy and pseudopregnancy were significantly different, which indicated that OPN expression in mouse oviducts was depend on estrogen and preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, anti-OPN antibody treatment could reduce the rates of fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst formation in vitro in a dose-dependent way. Overall, our results indicated that the expression of OPN in mouse oviducts during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy is likely regulated by estrogen and the embryo, and OPN may play a vital role in oocyte fertilization and preimplantation embryo development.
Mentoring received by protégés has been shown to play an important role in relieving protégés’ job-related stress. However, literature on the relationship between mentoring and job-related stress has yielded mixed and inconclusive results. Our research seeks to reconcile the conflicting implications by examining protégés’ individual traditionality and trust in mentor as moderators on the relationship between mentoring and job-related stress. We tested the hypotheses with data from a sample of 210 protégés from a large company in China. Results of our two-way and three-way interaction effect tests revealed that: (1) traditionality moderated the negative relationship between mentoring and job-related stress in such a way that the relationship was stronger for protégés with higher rather than lower traditionality; (2) the influence that mentoring had on job-related stress was strongest for protégés with both high traditionality and a high level of trust in mentor.
Due to the existence of spatial walk-off and/or group-velocity mismatch effects, pump-to-signal phase transfer becomes inevitable during parametric amplification. We experimentally demonstrate that in hybrid seeded optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) that include two OPA stages seeded by the signal and idler waves, respectively, the phase of the output signal can be restored to its initial value, although there are spatial and temporal phase fluctuations on the pump source. This method significantly relaxes the requirement for high pump beam quality, which is always very stringent in parametric amplification systems. With the introduction of this scheme into birefringent phase-matching OPAs or chirped-pulse OPAs, it should be promising to achieve intense femtosecond laser pulses that are close to the diffraction limit in space and ultra-high contrast in time, simultaneously.
Most CuIn(SexS1−x)2 (CISS) thin films are deposited via conventional two-stage process. However, a significant problem related to the conventional two-stage process is the separation of CuInSe2 and CuInS2 phases. In this article, single-phase CISS thin films have been successfully prepared by selenizing sulfides of copper and indium. The mixed sulfides of Cu–In precursors were synthesized by coprecipitation method and then partly reduced. The inks containing partly reduced powders and organic binders were deposited onto glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. After coating, the precursor films were selenized to get CISS. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy data show that the single (112) peak position changed with the variation of Se/S ratio. The absorption energy Egchanges linearly with Se/(Se + S) calculated by ultraviolet–vis absorption spectra. Those results confirm the formation of single-phase CISS with homogenous composition.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
Despite an increasing number of studies that show a positive relationship between the supportiveness of the feedback source and feedback seeking, little is known about the role that supervisors play in promoting employee feedback-seeking behaviour when they serve as feedback sources. The present article developed a model to fill this void and tested it with data from a sample of 237 supervisor–subordinate dyads. We hypothesized and found that authentic leadership was positively related to feedback-seeking behaviour mediated by both perceived instrumental value and image cost of feedback seeking. The results also demonstrated that employees' individual cultural value of power distance moderated the relationships between authentic leadership and the perceived instrumental value and image cost of feedback seeking.
We have examined the structure of plastic deformation zones ahead of the tips of microcracks in Zr-based bulk metallic glass Zr57Ti5Cu20Ni8Al10. We have used an axially aligned dark field transmission electron microscopy technique, with the objective aperture placed to form images using electrons from several different areas of the diffraction patterns. We also compared Fourier transforms of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images of deformed and undeformed regions to extract additional structural information. The plastic zones produce enhanced low-angle scattering of electrons and an apparent broadening of the amorphous halo, suggesting increased disorder and the presence of voids in the deformed zones. These results are consistent with an increased degree of atomic-scale disorder and enhanced free volume in highly deformed regions, which may provide a partial explanation of the manner in which plastic deformation occurs in metallic glasses.