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The current study aimed to evaluate the association of major dietary patterns with anxiety in middle-aged adults in eastern China.
Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI for anxiety according to quartiles of each dietary pattern score.
Evidence regarding the relationship between dietary patterns and anxiety in the Chinese population is scarce.
The study participants were 1360 Chinese adults aged 45–59 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic check-up in the city of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Four major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: traditional Chinese, western, grains–vegetables and high-salt diets. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the western pattern had greater odds for anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·000, 3·086, P < 0·05). In contrast, participants in the highest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern had lower odds for anxiety than did those in the lowest quartile (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·574, 1·000, P < 0·05). Moreover, no significant associations were observed between the traditional Chinese and high-salt patterns and the risk of anxiety.
Our findings indicate that the western pattern is associated with an increased risk, and the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a decreased risk of anxiety.
The effects of macronutrient intake on obesity are controversial. This research aims to investigate the associations between macronutrient intake and new-onset overweight/obesity. The relationship between the consumption of carbohydrate and total fat and obesity was assessed by the multivariable Cox model in this 11-year cohort, which included 6,612 adults (3,321 women and 3,291 men) who were free of overweight and obesity at baseline. The dietary intake was recorded using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days. Moreover, substitution models were developed to distinguish the effects of macronutrient composition alteration from energy intake modification. During 7.5 person years (IQR 4.3-10.8) of follow-up, 1,807 participants became overweight or obesity. After adjusting for risk factors, the HR of overweight/obesity in extreme quintiles of fat was 1.48 (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, 95% CI, 1.16-1.89; Ptrend =0.02) in women. Additionally, replacing 5% of energy from carbohydrate with equivalent energy from fat was associated with an estimated 4.3% (HR, 1.043; 95% CI, 1.007-1.081) increase in overweight/obesity in women. Moreover, dietary carbohydrate was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89; Ptrend =0.02) in women. Total fat was related to a higher risk of overweight/obesity, whereas high carbohydrate intake was related to a lower risk of overweight/obesity in women, which was not observed in men.
Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus are associated with exposure to poultry and live poultry markets, but the evidence of person-to-person transmission remains limited. This study reports a suspected person-to-person transmission of H7N9 virus, and explores what factors influenced this transmission.
We interviewed 2 patients with H7N9 infection and their family members as well as health-care workers. Samples from the patients and environments were tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
The index patient became ill 5 to 6 days after his last exposure to the poultry bought in the market of Weimiao town. The second patient, the sister of the index patient, who had sustained intensive and unprotected close contact with the index patient, had no exposure to poultry. This study documents that the H7N9 virus was transmitted directly from the index patient to his sister.
Our findings suggest that person-to-person transmission may be associated with sustained close contact with the patient during his onset of early stage, when the H7N9 viral shedding increases sharply.
Influenza activity is subject to environmental factors. Accurate forecasting of influenza epidemics would permit timely and effective implementation of public health interventions, but it remains challenging. In this study, we aimed to develop random forest (RF) regression models including meterological factors to predict seasonal influenza activity in Jiangsu provine, China. Coefficient of determination (R2) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were employed to evaluate the models' performance. Three RF models with optimum parameters were constructed to predict influenza like illness (ILI) activity, influenza A and B (Flu-A and Flu-B) positive rates in Jiangsu. The models for Flu-B and ILI presented excellent performance with MAPEs <10%. The predicted values of the Flu-A model also matched the real trend very well, although its MAPE reached to 19.49% in the test set. The lagged dependent variables were vital predictors in each model. Seasonality was more pronounced in the models for ILI and Flu-A. The modification effects of the meteorological factors and their lagged terms on the prediction accuracy differed across the three models, while temperature always played an important role. Notably, atmospheric pressure made a major contribution to ILI and Flu-B forecasting. In brief, RF models performed well in influenza activity prediction. Impacts of meteorological factors on the predictive models for influenza activity are type-specific.
The Weibel instability and the induced magnetic field are of great importance for both astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Because of the stochasticity of this magnetic field, its main wavelength and mean strength, which are key characteristics of the Weibel instability, are still unobtainable experimentally. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the autocorrelation tensor shows that in proton radiography of the Weibel-instability-induced magnetic field, the proton flux density on the detection plane can be related to the energy spectrum of the magnetic field. It allows us to extract the main wavelength and mean strength of the two-dimensionally isotropic and stochastic magnetic field directly from proton radiography for the first time. Numerical calculations are conducted to verify our theory and show good consistency between pre-set values and the results extracted from proton radiography.
Auto-alignment is a basic technique for high-power laser systems. Special techniques have been developed for laser systems because of their differing structures. This paper describes a new sensor for auto-alignment in a laser system, which can also serve as a reference in certain applications. The authors prove that all of the beam transfer information (position and pointing) can theoretically be monitored and recorded by the sensor. Furthermore, auto-alignment with a single lens sensor is demonstrated on a simple beam line, and the results indicate that effective auto-alignment is achieved.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
This study attempted to investigate and validate whether epididymis cold storage could be a suitable alternative for short-term preservation of spermatozoa. Mouse cauda epididymides and spermatozoa were preserved at 4–8°C from 1 day to 6 weeks. From days 1 to 10, motility and fertility were daily examined when motility loss occurred. From week 1, spermatozoa were used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) at weekly intervals to test their fertility, and spermatozoa DNA integrity was determined by comet assay. We found that motility and progressive motility scores gradually decreased with storage time. In nearly all spermatozoa, DNA integrity was maintained from days 1 to 10, but the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged DNA significantly increased from week 2 to week 6. Spermatozoa retained fertility until day 6, although fertility gradually decreased after day 3. From week 1 to week 5, fertilization rates by ICSI were more than 82.69% but decreased gradually after week 3. We found that spermatozoa preserved in the epididymis at 4–8°C had progressively lower motility, fertility and proportion of undamaged DNA, but could still fertilize oocytes. However, all the parameters of cold-preserved spermatozoa were completely inferior to that from cold-preserved cauda epididymides. The results imply that cold storage of cauda epididymides could be conducive to short-term preservation of spermatozoa, and the cold-stored spermatozoa can resist DNA denaturation, which is necessary for maintaining reproductive ability.
The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.
In this paper, a new technical scheme of high-voltage, long-pulse generator, mostly based on solid-state power devices, including magnetic pulse compressor, Blumlein-type rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) and inductive voltage adder (IVA), is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The generator has potential advantages of high average power level, high repetitive rate capability, long lifetime, and long pulse achievability, which meet the requirements of military and industrial application of the pulsed power technology. Specifically, a two-stage magnetic pulse compressor was set up with iron-based amorphous cores. Total compression ratio of the device is approximately 12 and the achieved voltage efficiency is up to 92%. Low impedance, long-duration Blumlein-type RSPFL was established with characteristic impendence and electrical length of 3 Ω and 100 ns, respectively. Mylar film was selected as the solid-state dielectric. Increased by a four-stage IVA, typical quasi-square pulse was obtained with peak current of 2.3 kA and duration over 200 ns. As the resistance of the dummy load was measured to be 60 Ω, the peak voltage was approximately 138 kV. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.
The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the “one-child policy,” for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China’s one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China—one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale—is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power.
The hot water tail-flick test is widely used to measure the degree of nociception experienced by laboratory animals. This study was carried out to optimise interval times for the hot water immersion tail-flick tests in rats.
Ten different intervals from 10 s to 1 h were tested in 60 Sprague–Dawley male rats. At least eight rats were tested for each interval in three consecutive hot water tail-flick tests. Dixon's up-and-down method was also used to find the optimal intervals. The same rats were then divided into two groups. In Group N, naloxone was injected to reverse the prolonged latency times, whereas saline was used in the control Group S.
Intervals of 10 s, 20 s, 30 min and 1 h did not significantly impact latencies, yielding similar results in three consecutive tests (p > 0.05). However, interval times of between 30 s and 20 min, inclusively, caused significantly prolonged latencies in the second and third tests (p < 0.001). Dixon's up-and-down method showed that 95% of the rats had prolonged latencies in hot water tail-flick tests at intervals longer than 32 s. Naloxone reversed prolonged latencies in Group N, whereas the latencies in Group S were further prolonged in 5 min interval tests.
The optimal intervals for hot water tail-flick tests are either shorter than 20 s or longer than 20 min. The prolonged latencies after repetitive tests were attributable to an endocrine opioid.
This paper presents a novel metamaterial constructed with wires, spheres and hollow slabs (WSHS), which simultaneously exhibits negative permittivity and permeability. An electromagnetic wave simulation is performed based on the proposed metamaterial and shows that a negative refractive index is achieved for this metamaterial. Adjusting the lattice constant of the unit cell is an easy way to manipulate the frequency of negative index of this structure. A left-hand material prism is designed composed of metamaterial unit cells and the simulation on the proposed prism proves the left-hand behavior of the designed metamaterial.
The present study investigated the effects of xanthophyll supplementation on production performance, antioxidant capacity (measured by glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduced glutathione:oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG)) and lipid peroxidation (measured by malondialdehyde (MDA)) in breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Blood samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of the trial. Liver and jejunal mucosa were sampled at 35 d. Both xanthophyll groups improved serum SOD at 21 and 28 d, serum T-AOC at 21 d and liver T-AOC, and serum GSH:GSSG at 21, 28 and 35 d and liver GSH:GSSG. Xanthophylls also decreased serum MDA at 21 d in hens. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg in ovo xanthophyll/kg diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Liver samples were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 d. In ovo-deposited xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver mainly within 1 week after hatching. Maternal effects gradually vanished during 1–2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver and serum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. Data suggested that xanthophyll supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation in different tissues of hens and chicks.
Within the same pathogen-stress framework as proposed by Fincher & Thornhill (F&T), we argue further that pathogen stress promotes matrilocal rather than patrilocal family ties which, in turn, slow down the process of modernity; and that pathogen stress promotes social learning or copying, including the adoption of foreign religions.
The present study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40 % of lutein and 60 % of zeaxanthin) on proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) expression of breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, a total of 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (as the control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls (six replicates per treatment). The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 d of the trial. The results showed that both levels of xanthophyll addition decreased IL-1β mRNA in the liver and jejunum, IL-6 mRNA in the liver, IFN-γ mRNA in the jejunum and LITAF mRNA in the liver compared to the control group. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. The results showed that in ovo xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and LITAF) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10) in the liver, jejunum and ileum mainly at 0–7 d after hatching. In ovo effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work during 1–2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls modulated proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the liver and jejunum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, xanthophylls could regulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in different tissues of hens and chicks.
A roast experiment was carried out by using vanadium stone coal from Hubei Province as object, in the condition of compound additive dosage is 6%, the effects of roasting temperature, roasting time and material size on vanadium lixiviate efficiency were investigated. Experimental results indicate that, for the vanadium stone coal from Hubei Province, at the condition of additive dosage is 6%, the ideal target of vanadium lixiviate efficiency 82.3% can be acquired in the optimum condition of roasting temperature at 850 oC, roasting time is 120 minutes, material size is minus 0.5mm.
Stone coal is an important vanadium-bearing resource in China. Most vanadium exists in stone coal as V(III), which is stable and not easily to be extracted. The V(III) should be oxidized to V(IV) and/or V(V) by roasting with additives at high temperature and then extracted by acid leaching and/or water leaching. Hence, the vanadium valency in roasted stone coal can reflect the roasting efficiency and leaching rate. In traditional digestion process, the V(V) can oxidize V(III) in solution and this causes great error to the determination of vanadium valency. In this study, the V(IV) and V(V) in roasted stone coal is dissolved firstly in 5% of hydrochloric acid at room temperature for 1h because the V(III) embedded in crystal lattice can not dissolve in dilute acid. The acid solution containing V(IV) and V(V) is titrated by 0.02 M ammonium ferrous sulfate (AFS), and the jump in titration curve indicates the reducing of V(V) to V(IV) by ferrous ion. The volume of V(V) can be calculated according to the consumption of AFS. The total volume of vanadium can be determined by potassium permanganate oxidation-ammonium ferrous sulfate titrimetric method. Hence, the volume of V(IV) can be obtained by deducting the quantity of V(V) from the total vanadium. Secondly, the undissolved residue is digested in Teflon vessel by phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid at 90 °C for 2h. The digestion solution is also titrated by AFS under nitrogen atmosphere, and the jump in titration curve denotes the reducing of V(IV) to V(III) by ferrous ion in phosphoric acid medium. So, the volume of V(III) and V(IV) can be obtained in the same way. This method is characterized by high measuring accuracy and excellent reproducibility.