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Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Owing to lack of a definitive correlation between carbon supports and catalytic activity of single-atom Fe-active sites, rational design and preparation of single-atom Fe catalysts have so far been elusive. Herein we designed and prepared one-dimensional core–shell nanostructured single-atom Fe catalysts, in which carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes with different crystallinities and electrical conductivities were used as supports to host single-atom Fe-active sites. It was found that the carbon supports with higher electrical conductivity accelerate charge transfer and enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of single-atom Fe-active sites as well as the ORR durability of the final catalyst.
In this paper, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Baiyanghe dolerites in northern West Junggar of NW China are presented. The U–Pb dating of zircons from the dolerites yielded ages of 272.2±4 Ma and 276.7±6.2 Ma, which indicate the emplacement times. The dolerites are characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (46.89 to 49.07 wt%), high contents of Al2O3 (13.60 to 13.92 wt%) and total Fe2O3 (11.14 to 11.70 wt%), and low contents of MgO (2.67 to 3.64 wt%) and total alkalis (Na2O+K2O, 5.1 to 5.97 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.37–0.94), which indicate affinities to metaluminous tholeiite basalt. The REE pattern ((La/Sm)N = 2.25–2.34, (La/Yb)N = 7.42–8.36), V–Ti/1000 and 50*Zr–Ti/50–Sm discrimination diagrams show that these rocks are OIB-type. The high contents of Zr and Ti indicate a within-plate tectonic setting, and samples plot in the ‘plume source’ field shown on the Dy/Yb(N) versus Ce/Yb(N) diagram. The positive εNd(t) values (+7.09 to +7.48), high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70442 to 0.70682) and depletions of Nb and Ta elements in the samples can be explained by the involvement of subducted sediments. In summary, it is possible that the Baiyanghe dolerites were derived from an OIB-like mantle source and associated with a mantle plume tectonic setting. Therefore, our samples provide the youngest evidence for the existence of a mantle plume, which may provide new insights into the Late Palaeozoic tectonic setting of West Junggar.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
The early Cambrian Period was a key interval in Earth history with regard to changes in both ocean chemistry and animal evolution. Although increasing ocean ventilation has been widely assumed to have played a key role in the rapid appearance, diversification and spatial colonization of early animals, this relationship is in fact not firmly established. Here, we report a high-resolution Fe-C-S-Al-Ti geochemical study of the lower Cambrian Wangjiaping section from an outer-shelf setting of the Yangtze Sea of South China. Iron speciation data document a redox transition from dominantly euxinic to ferruginous conditions during Cambrian Age 3 (c. 521–514 Ma). Interpretation of coexisting pyrite sulphur isotope (δ34Spy) records from Wangjiaping reveals relatively high marine sulphate availability at Wangjiaping. Furthermore, Wangjiaping section shows lower δ34Spy (‒2.1±5.3‰) and lower TOC (2.4±1.1%) values but higher positive correlation (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.01) between TOC and Fepy/FeHR relative to deeper sections reported previously, suggesting that euxinia developed at Wangjiaping in response to increasing marine productivity and organic matter-sinking fluxes. Our reconstructed redox conditions and fossils at Wangjiaping in comparison with previously well-studied strata in the inner-shelf Xiaotan and Shatan sections suggest that planktonic and benthic planktonic trilobites with bioturbation appeared in the oxic water columns, whereas only planktonic trilobites without bioturbation occurred within the anoxic (even euxinic) water columns during Cambrian Age 3. This finding indicates that spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions in the shelves had an important effect on early animal distribution in the Yangtze Block.
We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4–100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0–89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.
A diode-pumped master oscillator power amplifier system based on a cryogenic Yb:YAG active-mirror laser has been developed. The performances of the laser amplifier at low temperature and room temperature have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A maximum output energy of 3.05 J with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 14.7% has been achieved by using the master amplifier system.
Round spermatid injection (ROSI) into mammalian oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. One current limitation to this technique is the identification of suitable round spermatids. In the current paper, round spermatids were selected from testicular cells with phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and ROSI was performed in two strains of mice. The rates of fertilization, embryonic development and offspring achieved were the same in all strains. Significantly, round spermatids selected by PCM and FACS were effectively used to rescue the infertile Pten-null mouse. The current results indicate that FACS selection of round spermatids can not only provide high-purity and viable round spermatids for use in ROSI, but also has no harmful effects on the developmental capacity of subsequently fertilized embryos. It was concluded that round spermatids selected by FACS are useful for mouse strain rederivation and rescue of infertile males; ROSI should be considered as a powerful addition to the armamentarium of assisted reproduction techniques applicable in the mouse.
Objective: At present, the haemodynamic diagnosis of orthostatic intolerance is based mainly on the head-up tilt table test, which is sometimes risky for patients. Thus, it is important to find objective and safe methods to differentiate haemodynamic patterns of orthostatic intolerance cases. Methods: In all, 629 children with orthostatic intolerance, either vasovagal syncope or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, were included in the multi-centre clinical study. We analysed the association between the clinical manifestation and haemodynamic patterns of the patients. Results: Syncope after motion with a prodrome of chest distress or palpitations and the concomitant symptom(s) after a syncopal attack, with debilitation, dizziness or headache, were the most important variables in predicting the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.5%. Conclusion: Complaint of syncope after motion with prodromal chest distress or palpitation and the concomitant symptom after a syncopal attack, with subsequent debilitation, dizziness or headache, were the most important variables in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope in children with orthostatic intolerance.
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT), a powerful tool in basic scientific research, has been used widely to increase and preserve the population of endangered species. Yak (Bos grunniens) is one of these species. Development to term of interspecies cloned yak embryos has not been achieved, possibly due to abnormal epigenetic reprogramming. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of intraspecies cloned embryos with (NaBu) significantly improves nuclear–cytoplasmic reprogramming and viability in vitro. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of optimal NaBu concentration and exposure time on preimplantation development of yak iSCNT embryos and on the expression patterns of developmentally important genes. The results showed that 8-cell rate, blastocyst formation rate and total cell number increased significantly compared with their untreated counterparts when yak iSCNT embryos were treated with 5 nM NaBu for 12 h after activation, but that the 2-cell stage embryo rate was not significantly different. The treatment of NaBu also increased significantly the expression levels of Oct-4 and decreased the expression levels of HDAC-2, Dnmt-1 and IGF-1; the expression patterns of these genes were more similar to that of their bovine–yak in vitro fertilization (BY-IVF) counterparts. The results described above indicated that NaBu treatment improved developmental competence in vitro and ‘corrected’ the gene expression patterns of yak iSCNT embryos.
High dielectric tunability, low dielectric loss tangent and appropriate level of dielectric constant are the basic requirements for applications as electrically tunable dielectric microwave devices. In our experiments, the SrTiO3 green compacts made of the powder mixtures with various particle sizes were infiltrated with a BaTiO3 precursor solution and sintered at different temperatures between 1280 and 1350 ºC for 2 hours and 1350 ºC for 6 hours. The sintering, microstructural and dielectric properties were investigated. Results showed that the relative density of SrTiO3 ceramics could reached 93% when sintered at 1280 ºC for 2 hours. When sintered for 6 hours at 1350 °C, the room temperature dielectric constant of SrTiO3 reaches 900 at a frequency of 1MHz. It has only weak temperature dependence between 100 and 500K. The reason of the low sintering temperature for the dense SrTiO3 ceramics and the effects of sintering scheme on the dielectric properties from 100 K to 500 K are discussed in this paper.
Sillenite Bi25FeO40 crystallites have been fabricated via a sol-gel approach. X-ray diffraction results show that single-phase Bi25FeO40 can be synthesized at the annealing temperature of 600 oC with the help of PEG additive. The amount of additives and the annealing temperature has great effects on the formation of phase pure Bi25FeO40 crystallites. The morphologies of Bi25FeO40 crystallites were observed by SEM techniques. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated the good visible light absorption of Bi25FeO40 crystallites. The photo-catalytic activity of Bi25FeO40 powders was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange solution assisted by H2O2 under UV-Vis light and Vis-only light irradiation, which suggested that Bi25FeO40 crystallites are potential photocatalytic materials.
A long dust history established using geological archives from dust provenance areas is necessary to understand the role of atmospheric dust in the global climate system better. Core sediments from a closed-basin groundwater-recharged lake in arid Central Asia were investigated using a multi-proxy approach (e.g. 14C AMS dating, pollen, and grain size) to trace the dust history since ~ 15 cal ka BP. Pollen analysis showed that before 7.9 cal ka BP, the vegetation was of desert type. After 7.9 cal ka BP, vegetation density increased, probably due to slightly increased moisture. The Chenopodiaceae-dominated desert expanded rapidly at 4.2–3.8 cal ka BP. Grain-size analysis was conducted for samples of lake deposits, modern aeolian dust, and dust trapped in snow, and the data showed that there was strong aeolian dust deposition at 11.8–11.1, 10.6–8, 6.1–4.9, and after 3.3 cal ka BP. This timing corresponds well with periods of increased terrestrial dust fluxes recorded by Greenland ice cores. Our study may document changes in the location and intensity of the Siberia High. These changes may play a more important role in the history of dust emission in arid Central Asia than previously thought.
A facile hydrothermal route assisted by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was utilized to synthesize single-phase Bi2Fe4O9 crystallites. X-ray diffraction results showed the products with PEG 400 of 30 g/L exhibited a preferred growth along the (001) plane. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology of the as-prepared Bi2Fe4O9 crystallites with PEG 400 were plake-like and rod-like. Strong absorption in visible-light region of the products was characterized by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-DRS). The photocatalytic activity of Bi2Fe4O9 crystallites was evaluated on degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. For 3 h irradiation, the degradation ratio was increased to 93% with the aid of a small amount of H2O2. The analysis of FT-IR spectra proved that the Bi2Fe4O9 catalysts were remained stable after the photocalytic reactions.
A simple novel route to synthesize aqueous tantalum and niobium precursors has been developed using cheap and stable Nb2O5 or Ta2O5 as starting source, based on basic flux technique. Various analytical techniques have been employed to characterize the purity, and thermal decomposition features of the precursors. Using home-made Ta and Nb precursors, several photocatalysts and ferroelectric powders such as LiNbO3, LiTaO3, Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6, and SrBi2Ta2O9 have been prepared at lower processing temperature by a polymerizable complex route successfully.
A PVA-assisted hydrothermal synthesis route was utilized to fabricate single-phase Bi25FeO40 crystallites.X-ray diffraction results indicated that sillenite Bi25FeO40 have been synthesized at the temperature of 200 ℃ using the KOH concentration of 7 M. Scanning electron microscopy showed the morphology of the as-prepared products were cubic shape with side length of 26μm. The band gap of Bi25FeO40 was determined to be 1.8 eV (688 nm) by using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. It was found that Bi25FeO40 exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange under UV-Vis irradiation, being a potential material for photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants.
The Cu-type and (Cu-Fe)-type film catalysts have been successfully prepared by the electroless plating on ZnO nanorods/stainless steel substrates. The microstructure features of the (Cu-Fe)-type films are high porosity and plate-type grains. The addition of iron into Cu-type film can improve the reducibility and the stability of the film catalysts. The reduction temperature of the (Cu-Fe)-type film catalysts decreases with increasing the addition of Fe. For Cu-5 at% Fe film, the reduction temperature is in the range of 195°C to 216°C as comparison in the range of 208°C to 233°C of the Cu-type film catalysts.
The Cu-based film catalysts with various additive metals have been successfully prepared by the electroless plating on ZnO nanorods/stainless steel substrates. The microstructure features of the Cu-based films are highly porous and composed of plate-type grains. The addition of zirconium, aluminum, and iron into Cu-based film catalyst can improve the activity and the stability of the film catalysts. The catalytic durability of the Cu-based film catalysts has also been improved by addition of Zr, Al, and Fe into Cu-based films. This is attributed to the formation of the stable ZrO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles with good dispersion in the films.