A variety of carbon nano- and submicro-structures with spectacular morphologies such as spaghetti-like, dendritic, and segmented carbon fibers; carbon pillars; and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was selectively synthesized by the alcohol chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The phase structure and morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon structures could be controlled by adjusting the deposition position and the growth temperature. The formation mechanism of these carbon structures was discussed on the basis of the experimental results. The various CVD products obviously imply that the growth mechanism for our alcohol CVD process evolves from catalytic growth mode to pyrolytic carbon deposition mode. The obtained various carbon nano- and submicro-structures may be promising for applications in functional nanodevices.