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With the progress in science and technology, hazardous chemicals are becoming more essential in chemical products, industrial and agricultural production, and daily life. Hazardous chemicals have poisoning, corrosive, explosive, and combusting natures; once on fire, they can trigger a chain of catastrophic incidences, resulting in casualties, property loss, and environmental pollution and posing hazards to life and property. Using the “8–12” explosion of the Ruihai Logistics warehouse in Tianjin Port (Binhai New District, China), the present study analyzes the characteristics of trauma of the casualties in this accident and the emergency medical rescue strategies. The goals were to improve the ability of emergency rescue in such accidents and to save people’s lives and property to the maximum extent.
In this study, direct numerical simulation of the dispersion and motion of inertial particles in a spatially developing compressible turbulent boundary layer at a Mach number of 2 is performed with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point particle method. Two cases are simulated with different particle diameters (Stokes number) but identical inflow particle numbers. Statistical characteristics and preferential accumulation of particles in the very-near-wall and wake regions are systematically investigated through conditional sampling and mechanism analysis. The results reveal that particle streaks are formed in low-speed regions near the wall because of the influence of dominating ejection events. After normalization with the local minimum particle number density, the particle number density profile reveals a self-similar feature at different streamwise positions. Compared with small particles, large particles are more significantly influenced by turbophoresis and demonstrate stronger preferential accumulation; thus, more large particles are clustered in the near-wall regions and the deviation between the mean velocities of the particle and the fluid increases. With the wall effect, both large and small particles are selectively accumulated in high-vorticity regions in the buffer layer in contrast to turbulence without walls. In comparison with incompressible wall-bounded turbulence, a new mechanism for particle preferential accumulation based on local fluid density is discovered. Large particles are located in low-density regions in the inner zones and high-density regions in the outer zones. Nevertheless, small particles remain located in regions with low fluid density, as illustrated by the mechanism analysis of particle dilatation.
As city residents eat out more frequently, it is unknown that if iodised salt is still required in home cooking. We analysed the relationship of household salt and eating out on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnant women. A household condiment weighing method was implemented to collect salt data for a week. A household salt sample was collected. A urine sample was taken at the end of the week. Totally, 4640 participants were investigated. The median UIC was 139·1 μg/l in pregnant women and 148·7, 140·0 and 122·9 μg/l in the first, second and third trimesters. Median UIC in the third trimester was lower than in the other trimesters (P < 0·001). The usage rates of iodised (an iodine content ≥ 5·0 mg/kg) and qualified-iodised (an iodine content ≥ 21·0 mg/kg) salt were 73·9 and 59·3 %. The median UIC in the qualified-iodised salt group was higher than in the non-iodised group (P = 0·037). The median UIC in the non-iodised group who did not eat out was lower than in qualified-salt groups who both did and did not eat out (P = 0·007, <0·001). The proportion of qualified-iodised salt used in home cooking is low, but foods eaten out have universal salt iodisation according to the national compulsory policy. Household iodised salt did not play a decisive role in the iodine status of pregnant women. Pregnant women in their third trimester who are not eating out and using non-iodised salt at home require extra iodine.
Dolostones are widely developed in the middle Permian rocks of East Yunnan, China, mainly in the shoal-facies Maokou Formation. The previously reported dolostone formation mechanisms cannot explain the distribution and geochemical characteristics of these dolostones, in particular their strontium, magnesium and oxygen isotope signatures. To help predict the distribution of dolostone reservoirs and reduce the exploration risk and cost, this study proposes a new model of dolomitization: open thermal convection dolomitization. In this new dolomitization model, Mg2+ in dolomitizing fluids originates mostly from seawater, with a minor component coming from deep hydrothermal fluids. Elevated heat flux (in this case due to the nearby Emei mantle plume) causes spatial temperature variations in the fluid along the circulation flow pathways, resulting in fast and pervasive dolomitization of limestone. The proposed model not only explains the characteristics and distribution of dolostones in the study area but also serves as a reference for predicting the distribution of dolostones in other areas subjected to thermal convection.
Bastian, Jetten, and Ferris (2014) reported that shared pain enhances people’s bonding and cooperative behavior, but that shared no-pain has no such effect. They concluded that shared pain is a type of social glue that can improve people’s cooperation. However, in real life, both painful and painless experiences are often nonshared. Logically, the most direct way to determine whether sharing is the important element or not is to compare shared conditions with nonshared conditions. We conducted two experiments to investigate the relative effects of pain and sharing on enhancing people’s bonding and cooperative behavior by adding conditions of unshared pain and unshared no-pain. In experiment 1, we replicated Bastian, Jetten, and Ferris’s (2014) findings, and found that the effect of pain on bonding was mediated by empathy. In experiment 2, we used a 2 (pain/no-pain) × 2 (shared/unshared) design and found that while shared pain still induced more cooperative behavior than shared no-pain, unshared pain did not induce more cooperative behavior than unshared no-pain. Moreover, we found that empathy significantly mediated the relationship between pain and bonding when participants shared the experience. These results suggest that sharing is a necessary component for pain to act as social glue.
In the traditional Axiomatic Design (AD) theory, the mapping from the functional domain to the physical domain is based on the designers’ own knowledge and experience, and there is no systematical approach including the design resources provided outside the designers themselves’ access. Thus, the raw materials for the design process are largely limited, which means they can hardly support the designers’ increasingly creative and innovative conceptions. To help AD theory better support the design process, this paper proposes a computer-aided approach for the mapping from the functional domain to the physical domain within a distributed design resource environment, which consists of numerous design resources offered on the Internet by the providers widely distributed in different locations, institutes, and disciplines. To prove the feasibility of this proposed approach, a software prototype is established, and a natural leisure hotel is designed as an implementation case.
Highly dense zirconia dental ceramic coatings were fabricated by aqueous electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and subsequently sintered between 1250 and 1450 °C. Microstructural examination revealed that aqueous EPDZrO2 coatings possessed a tetragonal phase structure and the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Nanoindentation study proved that the aqueous EPDZrO2 coating also had excellent mechanical properties. The effect of different applied loads on hardness and elastic modulus of the 1350 °C-sintered sample at room temperature was investigated by the method of progressive multicycle measurement nanoindentation. The simulative experiment proved that hardness of aqueous EPDZrO2 exhibited reverse indentation size effect (ISE) behavior and then displayed the normal ISE response. The analysis indicates that the reverse ISE is attributed to the relaxation of surface stresses resulting from indentation cracks at small loads and normal ISE is caused by geometrically necessary dislocations. The tetragonal–monoclinic stress-induced phase transformation during nanoindentation is the primary cause of dental zirconia failures.
A wide variety of surgical strategies are used in tetralogy of Fallot repair. We sought to describe the international contemporary practice patterns for surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot.
Surgeons from 18 international paediatric cardiac surgery centres (representing over 1800 tetralogy of Fallot cases/year) completed a Research Electronic Data Capture-based survey. Participating countries include: China (4), India (2), Nepal (1), Korea (1), Indonesia (1), Saudi Arabia (3), Japan (1), Turkey (1), Australia (1), United States of America (2), and Canada (1). Summary measures were reported as means and counts (percentages). Responses were weighted based on case volume/centre.
Primary repair is the prevalent strategy (83%) with variation in age at elective repair (range). Approximately 47% of sites use patient age as a factor in determining the strategy, with age <3 months being the common cut-off for staged repair. In addition, patient weight of <3 kg is an indication for staged repair in 80% of participating institutions. Trans-atrial ventricular septal defect closure is the preferred approach in 62% of sites. Approximately 70% of responders reported using pulmonary valve z-score to guide right ventricular outflow tract management technique with the most prevalent cut-off for annulus preservation being a z-score of −3. Estimated incidence of annulus preservation is 53%. Minimal trans-annular incision is performed in >90% of all trans-annular repairs.
In this cohort representing 11 countries, there is variation in tetralogy of Fallot surgical management with no consensus on standard of practice. A large international prospective cohort study would allow analysis of impact of underlying anatomy and repair strategy on early and late outcomes.
In this paper, a systematic investigation of turbulence modulation by particles and its underlying physical mechanisms in decaying compressible isotropic turbulence is performed by using direct numerical simulations with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point-source approach. Particles interact with turbulence through two-way coupling and the initial turbulent Mach number is 1.2. Five simulations with different particle diameters (or initial Stokes numbers,
) are conducted while fixing both their volume fraction and particle densities. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence modulation are analysed through investigating the particle motion in the different cases and the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity and dilatation, especially the two-way coupling terms. Our results show that microparticles (
) augment turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid, critical particles (
) enhance the rotational motion of fluid, and large particles (
) attenuate turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid. The compressibility of the turbulence field is suppressed for all the cases, and the suppression is more significant if the Stokes number of particles is close to 1. The modifications of turbulent kinetic energy, the rotational motion and the compressibility are all related with the particle inertia and distributions, and the suppression of the compressibility is attributed to the preferential concentration and the inertia of particles.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
In this paper we present new petrological and whole-rock geochemical data for the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Ji'an Group within the Jiao–Liao–Ji Belt, China, as well as zircon U–Pb age dates and in situ Lu–Hf isotope data. The new data improve our understanding of the original nature of the metasedimentary rocks, further providing insights into their tectonic setting and the evolutionary history of the northern segment of the Jiao–Liao–Ji Belt. The zircons can be divided into two groups, viz., one of magmatic origin and the other of metamorphic origin. Zircon U–Pb dating gave mean or statistical peak ages for the magmatic zircons at 2035, 2082, 2178, 2343–2421, 2451–2545, 2643–2814 and 2923–3446 Ma, and mean peak ages for the metamorphic zircons at 1855 and 1912 Ma, which indicate a maximum depositional age of 2.03 Ga and two-stage metamorphic events at c. 1.91 and 1.85 Ga for the metasedimentary rocks. Geochemical data show that (1) the protoliths of these rocks were mainly sandstones, greywackes and claystones, together with some shales; (2) the main sources of the sedimentary material were Palaeoproterozoic granites and acid volcanic rocks, with minor contributions from Archaean granitic rocks; and (3) the sediments were deposited in an active continental margin setting. Moreover, along the northeastern margin of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton there is evidence of ancient crustal materials as old as 3.76 Ga, and multiple crustal growth events at 3.23–3.05, 2.80–2.65, 2.54–2.45 and 2.28–2.08 Ga.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Change mode and effects analysis (CMEA) is a powerful technique for measuring product flexibility toward future changes and diminishing the cost of redesign as well as shortening time to market. As a systematic methodology, it provides an in-depth view for the investigation of potential changes, causes, and effects in designs, products, and processes. Traditional CMEA determines the risk priorities of change modes by using change potential number, which requires the risk factors of design flexibility, occurrence, and readiness to be precisely evaluated. However, this is not always possible in real applications due to the uncertainty and subjectivity involved in the early design stages. It has been criticized much for its deficiencies in criteria weighting of the risk factors, change potential number calculation, and risk priorities determination of the change modes. This paper presents a systematic evaluation approach for determining a more rational rank of change modes by combining with the entropy weight method, rough number, and grey relational analysis. In this study, the entropy weight method is adopted to calculate the relative importance of risk factors. Rough number is presented to aggregate individual weights and preferences, and to manipulate the vagueness in the evaluation process. Then a rough number enhanced grey relational analysis is proposed to evaluate the risk ranking of change modes. Finally, a practical example is put forward to validate the performance of the proposed method. The result shows that the proposed change mode evaluation method can effectively overcome the shortcomings of traditional CMEA and strengthen the objectivity of product flexibility measurement.
The dynamics of vortical structures in flow over a circular cylinder in the vicinity of a flat plate is investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The cylinder is placed above the flat plate with its axis parallel to the wall and normal to the flow direction. The Reynolds number
based on the cylinder diameter
is 1072 and the gap
between the cylinder and the flat plate is varied from gap-to-diameter ratio
. The flow statistics and vortex dynamics are strongly dependent on the gap ratio
. Statistics show that as the cylinder comes close to the wall (
), the cylinder wake becomes more and more asymmetric and a boundary layer separation is induced on the flat plate downstream of the cylinder. The wake vortex shedding frequency increases with decreasing
until a critical gap ratio (about
) below which the vortex shedding is irregular. The deflection of the gap flow away from the wall and its following interaction with the upper shear layer may be the cause of the higher shedding frequency. The vortex dynamics is investigated based on the phase-averaged flow field and virtual dye visualization in the instantaneous PIV velocity field. It is revealed that when the cylinder is close to the wall (
), the cylinder wake vortices can periodically induce secondary spanwise vortices near the wall. As the cylinder approaches the wall (
) the secondary vortex can directly interact with the lower wake vortex, and a further approaching of the cylinder (
) can result in more complex interactions among the secondary vortex, the lower wake vortex and the upper wake vortex. The breakdown of vortices into filamentary debris during vortex interactions is clearly revealed by the coloured virtual dye visualizations. For
, the lower shear layer is strongly inhibited and only the upper shear layer can shed vortices. Investigation of the vortex formation, evolution and interaction in the flow promotes the understanding of the flow physics for different gap ratios.
TiO2 nanofibers (TNFs) with different anatase/rutile phase ratios were fabricated using electrospinning technique followed by the annealing at different temperatures. The effect of annealing temperatures on their morphology, structural, and optical properties and photocatalytic activity was investigated. The photocatalytic performance of TNFs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution under the irradiation of simulated solar light. Annealing temperature significantly influenced photocatalytic degradation of MO due to the incorporation of rutile phase which suppresses recombination of photoactivated electron and hole pairs. Turnover frequency (TOF) of MO degradation was introduced to describe the intrinsic activity of TNFs. TNFs acquired best anatase/rutile phase ratio (A/R = 83/17) when annealed at 650 °C, resulting in highest TOF value 2394 h−1, two times higher as compared to P25 with similar anatase/rutile phase ratio (A/R = 85/15). Appropriate crystalline structure could be the reason for good photocatalytic activity as well as intrinsic activity of TNFs.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
To retrospectively analyze the rescue and treatment of pediatric patients by the Chinese Red Cross medical team during the Nepal earthquake relief.
The medical team set up a field hospital; the pediatric clinic consisted of 1 pediatrician and several nurses. Children younger than 18 years old were placed in the pediatric clinic for injury examination and treatment.
During the 7-day period of medical assistance (the second to third week after the earthquake), a total of 108 pediatric patients were diagnosed and treated, accounting for 2.8% of the total patients. The earthquake-related injuries mainly required surgical dressing and debridement. No severe limb fractures or traumatic brain injuries were found. Infection of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin were the most common ailments, accounting for 42.3%, 18.5%, and 16.7%, respectively, of the total treated patients.
Two to 3 weeks after the earthquake, the admitted pediatric patients mainly displayed respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. When developing a rescue plan and arranging medical resources, we should consider the necessity of treating non–disaster-related conditions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4)
Evolution of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) in a flat plate boundary layer transition induced by the wake of a circular cylinder is investigated. Both hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used. It is found that downstream of the cylinder, the disturbance in the boundary layer experiences a fast growth followed by a slow decay in the transition. Lagrangian coherent structures are revealed by qualitative hydrogen bubble visualizations and quantitative finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) fields derived from the PIV data. The evolution of the LCS is considered from the very beginning of the transition up to when the boundary layer becomes fully developed turbulent flow. The mean convection velocity and average inclination angle of the LCS are first extracted from the FTLE fields. The streamwise length of the low-speed streaks seems to increase, while their spanwise distance decreases in the boundary layer transition. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the PIV data shows that low-speed streaks associated with the hairpin vortices and hairpin packets are the dominant coherent structures close to the wall in the transitional and turbulent boundary layer. The POD modes also reveal a variety of scales in the turbulent boundary layer. Moreover, it is found that large-scale coherent structures can modulate the amplitude of the small-scale ones.