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In a study of some of the more prosperous middle-class Irish migrants to London in the eighteenth century, Craig Bailey has argued that it is important to emphasise ‘the possibilities rather than the limits of Irishness’ and that ‘Irish identity was far too important for most middle-class Irish to jettison’.1 The largest population of middle-class Irishmen outside of Ireland was resident in London in the eighteenth century, but, says Bailey, ‘scholars have mistaken the identity of middle-class migrants by making poverty the touchstone of Irishness, and by presuming that visible Irish characteristics such as language, accent and name necessarily had negative meanings’.2
Eleven radiocarbon dates and tree-ring analyses of 3 juniper logs demonstrate the potential for 14C analysis of buried logs in the American Midwest. Three junipers (cf. Juniperus virginiana) were recovered from 9.20, 10.50, and 10.60 m in the fill of Carnegie Canyon, west-central Oklahoma. Their 14C ages are calibrated between 3300 and 2800 yr ago. A negative correlation of tree rings and ∆14C (p = 0.013) supports the findings of Schmidt and Gruhle (1988), who demonstrate the association of global cooling with reduced solar activity.