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It has been well established that congruences between automorphic forms have far-reaching applications in arithmetic. In this paper, we construct congruences for Siegel–Hilbert modular forms defined over a totally real field of class number 1. As an application of this general congruence, we produce congruences between paramodular Saito–Kurokawa lifts and non-lifted Siegel modular forms. These congruences are used to produce evidence for the Bloch–Kato conjecture for elliptic newforms of square-free level and odd functional equation.
Multiple electron scattering and the nonintuitive nature of image formation with coherent radiation complicate the interpretation of conventional transmission electron microscopy images. Precession of the illuminating beam in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can lead to more robust and interpretable images with some penalty to image contrast, a technique known as dynamic hollow-cone illumination TEM. We demonstrate direct and robust imaging of light and heavy atoms in a crystalline environment with this technique. This method is similar to the annular bright-field technique in scanning transmission electron microscopy, via the principle of reciprocity. Dynamic hollow-cone illumination TEM is challenging in practice due to sensitivity to the misalignment of the precession axis, microscope objective aperture, and crystal zone axis.
Chapter 1 introduced the basic ‘tools’ of performance and reward management, including key aspects of purpose and practice. In this chapter we introduce two overarching concepts of alignment that recur throughout this book: ‘strategic alignment’ and ‘psychological engagement’. The design, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems requires simultaneous, systematic and constant attention to both of these dimensions of alignment.
‘Strategic alignment’ refers to the plans, processes and actions involved in establishing and maintaining an alignment between an organisation’s overarching purpose or intent and how it manages employee performance and reward, as well as all other aspects of people management.
This is a book about two of the core activities integral in the field of human resource management: managing employee performance and managing how employees are rewarded. As we shall see throughout the book, there is a close and complex inter-dependence between these two activities; so much so that it makes little sense to consider them in isolation from each other. Equally, while the book’s central concerns are with performance and reward practices and processes, attention is also paid throughout to recognising and analysing the interconnectedness of these and other aspects of human resource management. Performance management systems provide inputs into other HR functions such as training and employee development, as well as evaluating HR decisions such as recruitment and selection.
In this final chapter, we explore emerging trends – the new horizons – in business, technology and society with a particular focus on how these developments are influencing ideas, practice, employee experience and academic research in the field of performance and reward management. We begin with emerging trends and practices that have already begun to impact the design of performance and reward management systems and academic research in the field. We focus on three interconnected global trends that have already started to change performance and reward management practice; an impact that is very likely to increase in the years ahead. The first of these trends is the technological revolution associated with ‘Industry 4.0’; the second is the economic disruption and employment uncertainty associated with what has come to be called the ‘gig economy’; and the third is the social transformation flowing from generational change around the world.
The third edition of Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Systems, Practices and Prospects has been thoroughly revised and updated by a new four-member author team. The text introduces a new conceptual framework based on systems thinking and a dual model of strategic alignment and psychological engagement. Coverage of chapter topics provides a balance between research evidence and practice and, in this new edition, is enhanced with a more applied and technical approach. The text also includes chapters dedicated to conceptual framing, base pay and individual recognition and reward; 'reality check' breakout boxes with practical examples and current problems on each of strategic alignment, employee engagement, organisation justice and workforce diversity; and a new chapter exploring new horizons in performance and reward practice and research with a focus on the mega-trends of technological transformation under 'Industry 4.0', new economic forms and relationships arising from the 'gig' economy, and generational change.