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The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
To evaluate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake and Ca supplementation during pregnancy on low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants.
A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010–2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China.
A birth cohort study.
9595 pregnant women who came to the hospital for delivery at 20 weeks of gestation or more, and who were 18 years of age or older.
Compared to non-users, Ca supplement users had a reduced risk of LBW infants (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63–0.95) and a reduced risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (OR= 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58–0.98) (P<0.05). More specific, both use of Ca supplement before conception and during pregnancy (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and during pregnancy only (OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99) had the main effect of reducing risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (P<0.05). There was no association between Ca supplementation and SGA (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.01) (P>0.05). However, higher dietary Ca intake during pregnancy decreases the risk of both LBW (quartile 2: OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.55-0.94; quartile 3: OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.50-0.62) and SGA infants (quartile 2: OR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.63-0.95; quartile 3: OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.57-0.88, quartile 4: OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.57-0.88) (P<0.05).
Calcium supplementation and adequate dietary intake of calcium during pregnancy are associated with a decreased risk of LBW infants born to nulliparous women.
Hubei province in China has had the most confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and has reported sustained transmission of the disease. Although Lu'an city is adjacent to Hubei province, its community transmission was blocked at the early stage, and the impact of the epidemic was limited. Therefore, we summarised the overall characteristics of the entire epidemic course in Lu'an to help cities with a few imported cases better contain the epidemic. A total of 69 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Lu'an during the epidemic from 12 January to 21 February 2020. Fifty-two (65.0%) cases were male, and the median age was 40 years. On admission, 56.5% of cases had a fever as the initial symptom, and pneumonia was present in 89.9% of cases. The mean serial interval and the mean duration of hospitalisation were 6.5 days (95% CI: 4.8–8.2) and 18.2 days (95% CI: 16.8–19.5), respectively. A total of 16 clusters involving 60 cases (17 first-generation cases and 43 secondary cases) were reported during the epidemic. We observed that only 18.9% (7/37) index cases resulted in community transmission during the epidemic in Lu'an, indicating that the scale of the epidemic was limited to a low level in Lu'an city. An asymptomatic carrier caused the largest cluster, involving 13 cases. Spread of COVID-19 by asymptomatic carriers represents an enormous challenge for countries responding to the pandemic.
The core toroidal plasma intrinsic rotation has been studied by experiments and simulations in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). The direction of core intrinsic rotation in the J-TEXT plasma is counter-current. As the plasma density ramps up, the rotation velocity increases in the counter-current direction. By comparing four different electron densities, linear local gyrokinetic simulations have been performed by the Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment code for the first time on J-TEXT. It is found that the most dominant turbulence is the ion temperature gradient at
is the minor radius of the plasma and this is unchanged during the plasma density ramp up. By scanning the radial wave vectors, it is found that the residual stress term reverses from negative to positive when the plasma density exceeds a certain threshold. The pinch term is larger than the residual stress term at all four electron densities, which means that the pinch term is always dominant in the core of a J-TEXT plasma.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
We analyzed research themes in the field of disaster medicine in China to provide references for researchers to understand the research status and developing trends of this field.
Published journal articles were retrieved. A social network analysis was conducted to visualize the relations of high-frequency key words. A cluster analysis was used to classify key words. A strategic diagram analysis was conducted to visualize clusters across the entire research field.
We retrieved 3,079 articles, from which 1,749 articles and 8,284 key words were identified after screening. High-frequency key words were classified into 6 clusters. “Medical rescue” had the highest degree and betweenness centralities. Cluster 4 was located in Quadrant I of the strategic diagrams.
“Medical rescue” is the core key word, and it serves a pivotal “bridge” function. “Emergencies” and similar terms are key words with special statuses. “Natural disaster medical rescue” and “fundamental theories of disaster medicine” constitute the primary and secondary core themes, respectively. “On-site emergency treatment techniques” is a marginalized theme. The other themes are emerging themes that offer considerable scope for future development. Generally, the scope and depth of investigations in this field should be improved. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:405-409)
As a promising new way to generate a controllable strong magnetic field, laser-driven magnetic coils have attracted interest in many research fields. In 2013, a kilotesla level magnetic field was achieved at the Gekko XII laser facility with a capacitor–coil target. A similar approach has been adopted in a number of laboratories, with a variety of targets of different shapes. The peak strength of the magnetic field varies from a few tesla to kilotesla, with different spatio-temporal ranges. The differences are determined by the target geometry and the parameters of the incident laser. Here we present a review of the results of recent experimental studies of laser-driven magnetic field generation, as well as a discussion of the diagnostic techniques required for such rapidly changing magnetic fields. As an extension of the magnetic field generation, some applications are discussed.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis prevalent in large parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the rates of Babesia microti infection among small rodents in Yunnan province, where human cases of babesiosis have been reported. Currently, distribution of Babesia in its endemic regions is largely unknown. In this study, we cataloged 1672 small wild rodents, comprising 4 orders, from nine areas in western Yunnan province between 2009 and 2011. Babesia microti DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 4·3% (72/1672) of the rodents analyzed. The most frequently infected rodent species included Apodemus chevrieri and Niviventer fulvescens. Rodents from forests and shrublands had significantly higher Babesia infection rates. Genetic comparisons revealed that Babesia was most similar to the Kobe- and Otsu-type strains identified in Japan. A variety of rodent species might be involved in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of B. microti, supporting the need for further serological investigations in humans.
Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) are appealing alternatives to conventional porous activated carbon applied to electronic energy storage and conversion devices. Nitrogen-doped OMC (NOMC) was prepared with a soft-template strategy directly using task-specific ionic liquid with dicyanamide anion as the nitrogen dopant, and utilized as supercapacitors for the first time. Compared with pristine OMC, NOMC showed excellent electrochemical capacitive behavior in 6 M KOH electrolyte. NOMC possessed a high specific capacitance of 427 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and exhibited a stable cycle life (almost 98% retained at a current density of 5 A/g after 2000 cycles). The outstanding capacitive performance of NOMC was ascribed to the synergetic effects of its bimodal mesoporous structure, large specific surface area (1919 m2/g), and nitrogen doping (3.52 wt%), which help to accelerate the ion diffusion, increase the surface charge storage, and intensify pseudo-capacitive reactions.
The effect of nitrogen gas addition in Ar-based double-layer shielding gas on the impact toughness of welded ultra-ferritic stainless steel during an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was investigated. The nitrogen behavior was proposed. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture surface morphology of the weld metals have been evaluated. More equiaxed crystals, refined grain, narrow HAZ width, and increased microhardness were produced with nitrogen addition. Experimental findings indicated that nitrogen diffused into HAZ and dissolved into weld pool. The solute distribution was changed thus bringing significant constitutional supercooling and decreased temperature gradient of weld pool, which contributed to fine microstructure. Impact toughness at room temperature was enhanced from 2J to 9J (welds), 5J–13J (HAZ). Ductile fracture zone was produced about 0.3–0.5 mm thickness distance from the weld surface. A significant increased impact toughness of weld metal was due to the refinement of microstructure and element addition.
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models. Moreover, the result of local field potentials (LFPs) records further demonstrated miR-124 may have anti-epilepsy function. Inhibition of neuronal firing by miR-124 was associated with the suppression of mEPSC, AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated currents, which were accompanied by decreased surface expression of NMDAR. In addition, miR-124 injection resulted in decreased activity and expression of cAMP-response element-binding protein1 (CREB1). a key regulator in epileptogenesis. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm that miR-124 targeted directly the 3′UTR of CREB1 gene and repressed the CREB1 expression in HEK293T cells. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that the CREB1 antibody effectively precipitated CREB1 and NMDAR1 but not GLUR1 from rat brain hippocampus. These results revealed a previously unknown function of miR-124 in neuronal excitability and provided a new insight into molecular mechanisms underlying epilepsy.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
A defect in the intestinal barrier is one of the characteristics of Crohn's disease (CD). The tight junction (TJ) changes and death of epithelial cells caused by intestinal inflammation play an important role in the development of CD. DHA, a long-chain PUFA, has been shown to be helpful in treating inflammatory bowel disease in experimental models by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. The present study aimed at investigating the specific effect of DHA on the intestinal barrier function in IL-10-deficient mice. IL-10-deficient mice (IL-10− / −) at 16 weeks of age with established colitis were treated with DHA (i.g. 35·5 mg/kg per d) for 2 weeks. The severity of their colitis, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, epithelial gene expression, the distributions of TJ proteins (occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1), and epithelial apoptosis in the proximal colon were measured at the end of the experiment. DHA treatment attenuated the established colitis and was associated with reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the colonic mucosa, lower mean histological scores and decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α and interferon-γ). Moreover, enhanced barrier function was observed in the DHA-treated mice that resulted from attenuated colonic permeability, rescued expression and corrected distributions of occludin and ZO-1. The results of the present study indicate that DHA therapy may ameliorate experimental colitis in IL-10− / − mice by improving the intestinal epithelial barrier function.
A study of 7,388 consecutive patients after hepatic resection between 2011 and 2012 identified hepatolithiasis, cirrhosis, and intraoperative blood transfusion as the only independent risk factors of both incisional and organ/space surgical site infection (SSI). Patients with these conditions should be cared for with caution to lower SSI rates.
Mesoporous Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a simple solution method at low temperature. The transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the mesoporous Fe3O4 nanoparticles are monodispersed with a mean diameter of 160 nm and the thickness of ZnO layer is 15 nm approximately. The porosity of the products was further substantiated by the nitrogen (N2) sorption measurement. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm curve can be identified as type IV, which is a characteristic of mesopores. Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption properties of the as-prepared Fe3O4@ZnO mesoporous spheres-wax composites were investigated at a room temperature in the frequency range of 0.5∼18 GHz. Interestingly, the Fe3O4@ZnO mesoporous spheres exhibit an enhanced EM wave absorption due to the mesoporous structure. The multiple absorbing mechanisms result from the interface polarization induced by the special core/shell and mesoporous structures as well as dipole polarization of both Fe3O4 and ZnO. The results demonstrate that the Fe3O4@ZnO mesoporous spheres are attractive candidates for a new kind of EM wave absorption materials with wide absorption frequency band.