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Suicide is a global public health problem, but very few theories have been developed for its etiology and effective prevention. Presented in this article is a comprehensive and parsimonious theory explaining the socio-psychological mechanism prior to suicidal behavior. Strain, resulting from conflicting and competing pressures in an individual’s life, is hypothesized to precede suicide. The strain theory of suicide (STS) proposes four sources of strain leading to suicide: (1) value strain from differential values; (2) aspiration strain from the discrepancy between aspiration and reality; (3) deprivation strain from the relative deprivation, including poverty; and (4) coping strain from deficient coping skills in the face of a crisis. This new model is built on previous notions of anomie (Durkheim, 1897/1951), strain theories of deviance (Merton, 1957) and crime (Agnew, 1992), although suicide is not a major target for explanation in those theories. Future research with rigorous quantitative data needs to be conducted to further test STS on a more comprehensive level.
Asia Minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud.) is a problem grass weed of winter crops in China, where a population has become resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides. The mechanism of resistance is due to an Ile-2041-Asn mutation of the ACCase gene. Screen house experiments were conducted to study the growth, fecundity characteristics, and competitive ability of this aryloxyphenoxypropionate-resistant (APP-R) biotype compared with a susceptible (APP-S) biotype. When grown under noncompetitive conditions, the APP-R P. fugax developed more rapidly than the APP-S plants, with earlier tiller and panicle emergence and seed shedding; the APP-R P. fugax set seeds nearly 12 d earlier than the APP-S biotype. APP-R and APP-S biotypes had similar aboveground dry weight before the flowering stage. Fecundity of the APP-R biotype was similar to the APP-S biotype (8.57 g seeds plant−1 and 0.17 g seeds panicle−1 versus 8.22 g seeds plant−1 and 0.13 g seeds panicle−1, respectively). Ultimately, the relatively slower-developing APP-S P. fugax had 50% more shoot dry weight than the APP-R plants. Relative competitiveness among the APP-R and APP-S P. fugax biotypes was investigated through replacement series experiments. No difference in competitive ability was measured between APP-R and APP-S biotypes on the basis of shoot dry weight before the tillering stage. These results indicate that there is no apparent fitness penalty for the APP-R P. fugax. The shorter growth cycle of APP-R with no apparent fitness penalty suggests that growers will need begin weed control earlier and possibly include vegetative crops with an even shorter growth cycle in their rotations.
Stratification due to salt or heat gradients greatly affects the distribution of inert particles and living organisms in the ocean and the lower atmosphere. Laboratory studies considering the settling of a sphere in a linearly stratified fluid confirmed that stratification may dramatically enhance the drag on the body, but failed to identify the generic physical mechanism responsible for this increase. We present a rigorous splitting scheme of the various contributions to the drag on a settling body, which allows them to be properly disentangled whatever the relative magnitude of inertial, viscous, diffusive and buoyancy effects. We apply this splitting procedure to data obtained via direct numerical simulation of the flow past a settling sphere over a range of parameters covering a variety of situations of laboratory and geophysical interest. Contrary to widespread belief, we show that, in the parameter range covered by the simulations, the drag enhancement is generally not primarily due to the extra buoyancy force resulting from the dragging of light fluid by the body, but rather to the specific structure of the vorticity field set in by buoyancy effects. Simulations also reveal how the different buoyancy-induced contributions to the drag vary with the flow parameters. To unravel the origin of these variations, we analyse the different possible leading-order balances in the governing equations. Thanks to this procedure, we identify several distinct regimes which differ by the relative magnitude of length scales associated with stratification, viscosity and diffusivity. We derive the scaling laws of the buoyancy-induced drag contributions in each of these regimes. Considering tangible examples, we show how these scaling laws combined with numerical results may be used to obtain reliable predictions beyond the range of parameters covered by the simulations.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Intestinal barrier inflammatory damage is commonly accompanied by hypoxia. The hypothesis that dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) might modulate HIF-1α signaling pathway and contribute to attenuate intestinal injury was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. Thirty-six weaned pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups: (1) basal diet+saline challenge; (2) basal diet+LPS challenge; (3) basal diet with 800 mg/kg ASPS+LPS challenge. LPS was injected at 15, 18 and 21 d, and intestinal sections were sampled following blood collection at 21 d of the trial. The results showed ASPS administration reversed (P＜0.05) LPS-induced decrease in average daily feed intake and rise (P＜0.05) of diarrhea incidence and index. Biochemical index reflecting gut barrier damage and function involving ileal pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and enzymes activity (DAO and lactase), as well as circulatory D-xylose were normalized (P＜0.05) in LPS-challenged piglets receiving ASPS. ASPS also ameliorated intestinal morphological deterioration of LPS-challenged piglets, proven by elevated ileal villus height (P＜0.05) and improved appearance of epithelial villus and tight junction ultrastructure. Moreover, ASPS prevented LPS-induced amplification of inflammatory mediators, achieved by depressed mRNA abundance of TNF-α, iNOS, and concentration of IL-1β in ileum. Importantly, ileal protein expressions of HIF-1α, COX-2 and NFκB p65 were also suppressed with ASPS administration (P＜0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that the improvement of mucosal inflammatory damage and diarrhea in immune stress piglets are possibly associated with a novel finding where HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway down-regulation involved in NFκB p65-inducible releasing of inflammatory cytokines by dietary ASPS.
The aim of the study was to investigate how maternal dietary patterns and maternal/fetal cytokines are associated with birth weight and whether cytokines mediate the association. A total of 469 pregnant women and their children were recruited for this prospective study. Dietary patterns in pregnancy were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Maternal and umbilical blood serum cytokines (adiponectin (APN), IL-6 and interferon-γ) were measured via ELISA. Path analysis was used to explore the relationships between maternal diet, cytokines and birth weight. Four dietary patterns were identified: a mainly fruit, dairy products and poultry diet (FDP); a mainly vegetables, beans and pork diet (VBP); a mainly fish, shrimp and soup diet (FS) and a mainly tuber and egg diet (TE). Path analysis showed the order of effects of dietary patterns on birth weight was FS>FDP>TE>VBP (β=0·130, 0·109, –0·094 and 0·046, respectively). Only the TE pattern’s effect was negative. Maternal and fetal APN were positively associated with birth weight (β=0·045 and 0·226, respectively), and they mediated the association between the TE pattern and birth weight (indirect effect was 5·3 %). Maternal IL-6 was negatively associated with birth weight (β=–0·067) and mediated the association between maternal FDP and VBP patterns and birth weight (indirect effects were 10·1 and 100·0 %, respectively). All variables in the path explained 33·6 % of variation. These results suggested that maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy are associated with birth weight and mediated directly and indirectly through some maternal/fetal serum cytokines.
Ceramics are strong but brittle. According to the classical theories, ceramics are brittle mainly because dislocations are suppressed by cracks. Here, the authors report the combined elastic and plastic deformation measurements of nanoceramics, in which dislocation-mediated stiff and ductile behaviors were detected at room temperature. In the synchrotron-based deformation experiments, a marked slope change is observed in the stress–strain relationship of MgAl2O4 nanoceramics at high pressures, indicating that a deformation mechanism shift occurs in the compression and that the nanoceramics sample is elastically stiffer than its bulk counterpart. The bulk-sized MgAl2O4 shows no texturing at pressures up to 37 GPa, which is compatible with the brittle behaviors of ceramics. Surprisingly, substantial texturing is seen in nanoceramic MgAl2O4 at pressures above 4 GPa. The observed stiffening and texturing indicate that dislocation-mediated mechanisms, usually suppressed in bulk-sized ceramics at low temperature, become operative in nanoceramics. This makes nanoceramics stiff and ductile.
There is a genuine need to shorten the development period for new materials with desired properties. In this work, machine learning (ML) was conducted on a dataset of the elastic moduli of 219 bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) and another dataset of the critical casting diameters (Dmax) of 442 BMGs. The resulting ML model predicted the moduli and Dmax of BMGs in good agreement with most experimentally measured values, and the model even identified some errors reported in the literature. This work indicates the great potential of ML in design of advanced materials with target properties.
In this paper, based on a novel multimode stub-loaded resonator, a second-order quad-band bandpass filter (BPF) with mixed electric and magnetic coupling is presented. The electric coupling and magnetic coupling are realized by arranging the parallel coupled lines and the grounded stub, respectively. Eight controllable resonant modes can be simultaneously excited and easily tuned. Eight transmission zeros are created, enhancing the passband selectivity. In addition, the bandwidths can be controlled independently by adjusting the coupling strength. A quad-band BPF centering at 0.67, 1.51, 2.84, 3.58 GHz with respective 3 dB fractional bandwidths of 13.4, 15.6, 9.2, 11.5% is designed, fabricated, and measured. The filter is compact with overall size 0.058λg × 0.13λg. The measured results show a good consistence with the simulated ones.
Two wide band gap conjugated polymers, namely PBDT-TT25 and PBDT-TT36, derived from (4,8-bis(4,5-dioctyl-thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(trimethylstannane) with 2,5-dibromothieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT25) or 3,6-dibromothieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT36), have been synthesized by simply altering the linker positions of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene unit. The impact of linker positions on the energy levels, aggregation, active layer morphology, and optical and photovoltaic properties was evaluated systemically. We found that the absorption was greatly broadened, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was elevated as the result of the significantly reduced twist angle on the polymer backbone when the linker positions changed from 3,6-isomer to 2,5-isomer. Therefore, the optimal inverted polymer solar cells exhibited a 1.87 times enhancement in power conversion efficiencies (PCE), which was mainly ascribed to the higher short circuit current densities (JSC) and fill factor (FF) of the devices mainly benefited from the widened, stronger absorption, higher hole mobility, and more ordered structure.
Coatings with low friction coefficient and excellent anti-wear and anticorrosion performances are of great interest for fundamental research and practical applications. In the present study, Cobalt–nickel–phosphorus/graphene oxide (Co–Ni–P/GO) composite coating is prepared by a pulse electrodeposition method. Effect of the embedded GO sheets on the microstructures, microhardness, and electrochemical and tribological behaviors of the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating are researched in detail. The results reveal that the co-deposition of GO sheets significantly improves the microhardness of the as-prepared Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating and changes the morphology of the Co–Ni–P coating from hemispheric structure to nodule structure with smaller globular particles for the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating. In addition, friction and wear tests show that the incorporation of GO sheets endows the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating with remarkable friction reduction and improved wear resistance. Electrochemical corrosion tests demonstrate that the Co–Ni–P/GO composite coating possesses better corrosion resistance than the Co–Ni–P coating.
Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
We use ultrafast coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) to study the ultrafast spectral diffusion dynamics of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs). The Center Line Slope (CLS) and Nodal Line Slope (NLS) techniques were employed to analyse the 2DES spectra. We show that no spectral diffusion dynamics occurs for the CdSe QDs. On the other hand, spectral diffusion was observed in the CdSe 5 mono-layers NPLs heavy-hole transition. The normalized Frequency Fluctuation Correlation Function (FFCF) of the CdSe NPLs heavy-hole transition was measured to have a major fast decay component at 140 fs.
La3+ doped yttrium iron garnet films have been grown on (111) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates via Liquid phase epitaxy technique as a basic material for ISHE device fabrication. Pt as a material with a large spin hall angle was used as a spin detection layer. We investigated the dependence of the spin pumping effect on the power and frequency of the excitation microwaves in La:YIG/Pt bilayers by measuring the ISHE voltage. We demonstrated that the area under the ISHE curve(SISHE) across a wide power range had a nearly linear correlation with the input microwave power (Pin). The parameter SISHE can be used to describe the spin current energy in a Pt layer which can be a useful parameter for a microwave rectifier.
Health system reform is considered a tough issue worldwide. Great efforts have been made toward health system building and strengthening. However, it is still unclear which health system is appropriate for different countries. This study aimed to systematically compare the characteristics of the establishment periods between eighty-eight counties of National Health Service (NHS) and Social Health Insurance (SHI).
Forty-eight NHS countries and forty SHI countries with data availability were selected. The establishment years of current health systems and other eighteen indicators in economics, society, population and health during establishment periods were collected. Comparison between NHS and SHI was conducted by descriptive analysis of every indicator.
Most NHS countries were established during the cold war, while SHI had been set up since the cold war ended. The median of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization rate and aging rate of SHI were USD 1535 in current dollars, 58.2 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively; compared with USD 1387, 41.2 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively of NHS. NHS countries had a smaller total population, lower mortality rate and elderly dependency ratio, while the birth rate and children's dependency ratio were higher. SHI countries showed a higher life expectancy and lower mortality rate in infants and children. NHS countries spent less in total health expenditure and a lower proportion of GDP. The median health expenditure per capita of SHI and NHS were USD 188 and USD 131 in current dollars, respectively. There was little difference among maternal mortality rates, and public and private health expenditure proportions.
NHS and SHI countries had different characteristics during the health system establishment periods. NHS was established earlier than SHI overall, so that SHI revealed higher levels in economic and social development. Health outcomes of NHS countries were slightly lower than SHI ones, while health expenditure was more in SHI countries. Specific social, economic, demographic and health conditions should be considered when countries are building their own health systems.
Since the late 1990s, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a common health problem that mostly affects children and infants in Southeast and East Asia. Global climate change is considered to be one of the major risk factors for HFMD. This study aimed to assess the correlation between meteorological factors and HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and Weipu Database were searched to identify relevant articles published before May 2018. Data were collected and analysed using R software. We searched 2397 articles and identified 51 eligible papers in this study. The present study included eight meteorological factors; mean temperature, mean highest temperature, mean lowest temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and hours of sunshine were positively correlated with HFMD, with correlation coefficients (CORs) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42–0.60), 0.43 (95% CI 0.23–0.59), 0.43 (95% CI 0.23–0.60), 0.27 (95% CI 0.19–0.35), 0.19 (95% CI 0.02–0.35) and 0.19 (95% CI 0.11–0.27), respectively. There were sufficient data to support a negative correlation between mean pressure and HFMD (COR = −0.51, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.36). There was no notable correlation with wind speed (COR = 0.10, 95% CI −0.03 to 0.23). Our findings suggest that meteorological factors affect the incidence of HFMD to a certain extent.
Muscle fibre types can transform from slow-twitch (slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC)) to fast-twitch (fast MyHC) or vice versa. Leucine plays a vital effect in the development of skeletal muscle. However, the role of leucine in porcine myofibre type transformation and its mechanism are still unclear. In this study, effects of leucine and microRNA-27a (miR-27a) on the transformation of porcine myofibre type were investigated in vitro. We found that leucine increased slow MyHC protein level and decreased fast MyHC protein level, increased the levels of phospho-protein kinase B (Akt)/Akt and phospho-forkhead box 1 (FoxO1)/FoxO1 and decreased the FoxO1 protein level. However, blocking the Akt/FoxO1 signalling pathway by wortmannin attenuated the role of leucine in porcine myofibre type transformation. Over-expression of miR-27a decreased slow MyHC protein level and increased fast MyHC protein level, whereas inhibition of miR-27a had an opposite effect. We also found that expression of miR-27a was down-regulated following leucine treatment. Moreover, over-expression of miR-27a repressed transformation from fast MyHC to slow MyHC caused by leucine, suggesting that miR-27a is interdicted by leucine and then contributes to porcine muscle fibre type transformation. Our finding provided the first evidence that leucine promotes porcine myofibre type transformation from fast MyHC to slow MyHC via the Akt/FoxO1 signalling pathway and miR-27a.