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We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Using unique U.S. Census data sets, we analyze how entrepreneurial firms’ product market characteristics affect their choice between going public, being acquired, or remaining private. Size, total factor productivity (TFP), sales growth, capital expenditure, market share, access to private funding, and human capital intensiveness significantly increase a private firm’s likelihood of an initial public offering (IPO) relative to an acquisition. Firms in industries with less information asymmetry and higher stock liquidity are more likely to choose an IPO over an acquisition. While TFP peaks around either form of exit, the rate of increase in TFP prior to acquisitions and the subsequent decrease is smaller than that around IPOs.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
This study provides a global, detailed, and complete energy-saving map of strong ocean currents from the absolute geostrophic velocities calculated from satellite altimetry data, with the focus on the strong Western Boundary Currents (WBCs) in the global ocean. Theoretically, the WBCs with speeds of 2–3 knots can reduce fuel consumption by 25–50% for vessels at a sailing speed of 6 knots. The fuel savings are greater for a lower sailing speed than for a higher sailing speed. For about 1·8 million motorised fishing vessels with a lower ship speed, strong currents can evidently save fuel, time and money. Since global fishing vessels generate roughly 130 million tonnes of CO2 per annum (FAO, 2012), effective utilisation of the energy-saving map could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from ship operations.
We report the synthesis of a direct gap semiconductor, ZnSnN2, by a plasma-assisted vapor–liquid–solid technique. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements of polycrystalline material yielded lattice parameters in good agreement with predicted values. Photoluminescence efficiency at room temperature was observed to be independent of excitation intensity between 103 and 108 W/cm2. The band gap was measured by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy to be 1.7 ± 0.1 eV. The range of direct band gaps for the Zn(Si,Ge,Sn)N2 alloys is now predicted to extend from 4.5 to 1.7 eV, opening up this little-studied family of materials to a host of important applications.
The semiconductor ZnGeN2 was grown by a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Ordering of the Zn-Ge sublattice with growth temperature and Zn partial pressure was investigated by powder x-ray diffraction and was found to be sensitive to the growth temperature and insensitive, over the range explored, to the Zn and NH3 partial pressures. The degree of disorder on the cation sublattice was observed to correlate with the suppression of predicted Raman peaks and the emergence of phonon density-of-states features.
This paper introduces the design and kinematic analysis of a 5-DOF (multiple degree of freedom) hybrid-driven MR (Magnetic Resonance) compatible robot for prostate brachytherapy. It can slip the leash of template and rely on the high precise of MR imaging. After a brief introduction on design requirements of MR compatible robot, a description of our robot structure, material selection, hybrid-driven, and control architecture are presented. Secondly, the forward kinematics equations are obtained according to the equivalent diagram of this robot, and the actual workspace can be outlined. This will help the designer to determine whether this robot can be operated in the MR core without intervention with patient. And then, the inverse kinematics equations combined with trajectory planning are used to calculate the actuators movement. This will help the control system to manipulate the robotic accurately. Finally, vision based experiments on phantoms are used to verify the mechanism precision. As the results shown, the needle tip precision of mechanism is 0.9 mm in the general lab environment.
Knowledge of compound word structures in Chinese and English was investigated, comparing 435 Chinese and 258 Americans, including second, fourth, and sixth graders, and college undergraduates. As anticipated, the results revealed that Chinese speakers performed better on a word structure analogy task than their English-speaking counterparts. Also, as anticipated, speakers of both languages performed better on noun + noun and verb + particle compounds, which are more productive in their respective languages than noun + verb and verb + noun compounds, which are less productive. Both Chinese and English speakers performed significantly better on novel compounds than on familiar compounds, most likely because familiar compounds are lexicalized and do not invite decomposition into constituents.
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