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HIV-1 drug resistance can compromise the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A survey of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance (PDR) was conducted in Lincang Prefecture of Yunnan Province. From 372 people living with HIV/AIDS initiating ART for the first time during 2017–2018, 322 pol sequences were obtained, of which 11 HIV-1 strain types were detected. CRF08_BC (70.2%, 226/322) was the predominant strain, followed by URF strains (10.6%, 34/322). Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected among 34.2% (110/322) of the participants. E138A/G/K/R (14.3%, 46/322) and V179E/D/T (13.7%, 47/322) were the predominant DRMs. Specifically, E138 mutations commonly occurred in CRF08_BC (19.9%, 45/226). Among the DRMs detected, some independently conferred resistance, such as K65R (1.6%, 5/322), Y188C/F/L (0.9%, 3/322), K103N (0.6%, 2/322) and G190A (0.3%, 1/322), which conferred high-level resistance. The prevalence of PDR was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.6–10.3%) and the prevalence of non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.6–7.4%), which is below the threshold (⩾10%) of initiating a public health response. In conclusion, HIV-1 genetic diversity and an overall moderate level of PDR prevalence were found in western Yunnan. PDR surveillance should be continually performed to decide whether a public health response to NNRTI resistance should be initiated.
Several observational studies have investigated the association of insomnia with psychiatric disorders. Such studies yielded mixed results, and whether these associations are causal remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to identify the causal relationships between insomnia and five major psychiatric disorders.
The analysis was implemented with six genome-wide association studies; one for insomnia and five for psychiatric disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). A heterogeneity in dependent instrument (HEIDI) approach was used to remove the pleiotropic instruments, Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger regression was adopted to test the validity of the screened instruments, and bidirectional generalized summary data-based MR was performed to estimate the causal relationships between insomnia and these major psychiatric disorders.
We observed significant causal effects of insomnia on the risk of autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder, with odds ratios of 1.739 (95% confidence interval: 1.217–2.486, p = 0.002) and 1.786 (95% confidence interval: 1.396–2.285, p = 4.02 × 10−6), respectively. There was no convincing evidence of reverse causality for insomnia with these two disorders (p = 0.945 and 0.546, respectively). When insomnia was considered as either the exposure or outcome variable, causal estimates for the remaining three psychiatric disorders were not significant.
Our results suggest a causal role of insomnia in autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. Future disease models should include insomnia as a factor for these two disorders to develop effective interventions. More detailed mechanism studies may also be inspired by this causal inference.
This study examines the impact of employability on turnover intention by differentiating internal and external employability, and considering the possible moderating roles of perceived organizational support (POS) and career orientation. Using a sample of 411 responses to a two-wave questionnaire survey generated from six cities in China, we find that external employability positively influenced turnover intention, but internal employability negatively influenced turnover intention. The results also indicate that POS had a positive moderating effect only on the relationship between external employability and turnover intention. Furthermore, for employees with disengaged career orientation, external employability exerts a strong impact on turnover intention. This study adds to the limited research empirically linking employability and turnover intention, whereas the findings can be used by HRM practitioners to factor in organizational support and career orientation initiatives that improve the retention of employees with high external employability.
The dynamic mechanical force transmitted through microenvironments during tissue formation and regeneration continuously impacts the mechanics of cells and thereby regulates gene and protein expression. The mechanical properties are altered during the process of stem cells differentiating into different lineages. At different stages of differentiation, stem cells display different mechanical properties in response to surrounding microenvironments, which depend on the subcellular structures, especially the cytoskeleton and nucleus. The mechanical properties of the cell nucleus affect protein folding and transport as well as the condensation of chromatin, through which the cell fate is regulated. These findings raise the question as to how cell mechanics change during differentiation. In this study, the mechanical properties of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were determined during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytoskeletal structure and the modification of histone were investigated using laser confocal microscope and flow cytometry. The mechanical properties of cell nuclei at different stages of cell differentiation were compared. The stiffness of nuclei increased with time as osteogenesis was induced in hBMSCs. The H3K27me3 level increased during osteogenesis and adipogenesis according to flow cytometry analysis. Our results show conclusively that AFM is a facile and effective method to monitor stem cell differentiation. The measurement of cell mechanical properties by AFM improves our understanding on the connection between mechanics and stem cell fate.
The cao vit gibbon Nomascus nasutus, also known as eastern black crested gibbon, is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and was considered one of the world's 25 most threatened primates. The only known population occurs along the border between China and Viet Nam. Accurate information on population size and dynamics is critical for the species’ conservation, but population surveys conducted in only one country may over- or underestimate total population size because the home ranges of cao vit gibbon groups often cross the international border. In 2007 and 2016 we conducted two collaborative transboundary censuses of the cao vit gibbon populations in the Trung Khanh Cao Vit Gibbon Species and Habitat Conservation Area in Viet Nam and the Bangliang Gibbon National Nature Reserve in China. The results showed a population size of 102–110 in 2007, which increased to 107–136 in 2016. Our results indicate that previous surveys conducted separately in Viet Nam and China underestimated the global population size of this species. According to our more comprehensive surveys, the gibbon population is increasing slowly. The gibbons and their habitat are legally protected in both countries. Hunting and charcoal making have not been reported in this area since 2007. As habitat carrying capacity is a limiting factor, habitat restoration is required. However, lack of funding to protect the cao vit gibbon remains a challenge.
Introduction: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were commonly seen in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the elderly. Many studies found that WMHs were associated with cognitive decline and dementia. However, the association between WMHs in different brain regions and cognitive decline remains debated. Methods: We explored the association of the severity of WMHs and cognitive decline in 115 non-demented elderly (≥50 years old) sampled from the Wuliqiao Community located in urban area of Shanghai. MRI scans were done during 2009–2011 at the beginning of the study. Severity of WMHs in different brain regions was scored by Improved Scheltens Scale and Cholinergic Pathways Hyperintensities Scale (CHIPS). Cognitive function was evaluated by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) every 2 to 4 years during 2009–2018. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, depression, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, brain infarcts, brain atrophy, apoE4 status, and baseline MMSE score, periventricular and subcortical WMH lesions as well as WMHs in cholinergic pathways were significantly associated with annual MMSE decline ( p < 0.05), in which the severity of periventricular WMHs predicted a faster MMSE decline (–0.187 points/year, 95% confidence interval: –0.349, –0.026, p = 0.024). Conclusions: The severity of WMHs at baseline was associated with cognitive decline in the non-demented elderly over time. Interventions on WMH lesions may offer some benefits for cognitive deterioration.
The aim of the study was to investigate how maternal dietary patterns and maternal/fetal cytokines are associated with birth weight and whether cytokines mediate the association. A total of 469 pregnant women and their children were recruited for this prospective study. Dietary patterns in pregnancy were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Maternal and umbilical blood serum cytokines (adiponectin (APN), IL-6 and interferon-γ) were measured via ELISA. Path analysis was used to explore the relationships between maternal diet, cytokines and birth weight. Four dietary patterns were identified: a mainly fruit, dairy products and poultry diet (FDP); a mainly vegetables, beans and pork diet (VBP); a mainly fish, shrimp and soup diet (FS) and a mainly tuber and egg diet (TE). Path analysis showed the order of effects of dietary patterns on birth weight was FS>FDP>TE>VBP (β=0·130, 0·109, –0·094 and 0·046, respectively). Only the TE pattern’s effect was negative. Maternal and fetal APN were positively associated with birth weight (β=0·045 and 0·226, respectively), and they mediated the association between the TE pattern and birth weight (indirect effect was 5·3 %). Maternal IL-6 was negatively associated with birth weight (β=–0·067) and mediated the association between maternal FDP and VBP patterns and birth weight (indirect effects were 10·1 and 100·0 %, respectively). All variables in the path explained 33·6 % of variation. These results suggested that maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy are associated with birth weight and mediated directly and indirectly through some maternal/fetal serum cytokines.
It has been demonstrated that the introduction of NaCl can significantly improve the quality of monolayer WS2 at the growth temperatures ranging from 700°C to 850°C by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) without the assistant of hydrogen. Here, the influence of NaCl on the nucleation and growth of WS2 has been thoroughly investigated. The morphology and quality of WS2 grown with different temperatures are discussed by optical microscope, Raman and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra. It was found that amount of NaCl can efficiently influence the morphology and quality of WS2 crystals. PL intensity of WS2 crystal increases around three times from the center region to the edge of an individual domain, which may be attributed to the appearance of small triangle hollows formed during the growth at the edge of single crystal WS2.
Outside surface fluctuations of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule greatly affect the implosion performance. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based profilometer is developed to precisely characterize the capsule surface with nanometer resolution. With the standard nine surface profiles and the complete coverage data, 1D and 2D power spectra are obtained to quantitatively qualify the capsule. Capsule center fast aligning, orbit traces automatic recording, 3D capsule orientation have been studied to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the profilometer.
The effect of nitrogen gas addition in Ar-based double-layer shielding gas on the impact toughness of welded ultra-ferritic stainless steel during an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was investigated. The nitrogen behavior was proposed. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture surface morphology of the weld metals have been evaluated. More equiaxed crystals, refined grain, narrow HAZ width, and increased microhardness were produced with nitrogen addition. Experimental findings indicated that nitrogen diffused into HAZ and dissolved into weld pool. The solute distribution was changed thus bringing significant constitutional supercooling and decreased temperature gradient of weld pool, which contributed to fine microstructure. Impact toughness at room temperature was enhanced from 2J to 9J (welds), 5J–13J (HAZ). Ductile fracture zone was produced about 0.3–0.5 mm thickness distance from the weld surface. A significant increased impact toughness of weld metal was due to the refinement of microstructure and element addition.
Potassium titanyl phosphate crystals in both x-cut and z-cut were irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. The morphology of the resulting ion tracks was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SAXS measurements indicate the presence of cylindrical ion tracks with abrupt boundaries and a density contrast of 1 ± 0.5% compared to the surrounding matrix, consistent with amorphous tracks. The track radius depends on the crystalline orientation, with 6.0 ± 0.1 nm measured for ion tracks along the x-axis and 6.3 ± 0.1 nm for those along the z-axis. TEM images in both cross-section and plan-view show amorphous ion tracks with radii comparable to those determined from SAXS analysis. The protruding hillocks covering the sample surface detected by AFM are consistent with a lower density of the amorphous material within the ion tracks compared to the surrounding matrix. Simulations using an inelastic thermal-spike model indicate that differences in the thermal conductivity along the z- and x-axis can partially explain the different track radii along these directions.
Creative conceptual design requires significant previous design knowledge. Case-based reasoning enables learning from previous design experience and has a great potential in supporting creative conceptual design by means of seeking to retrieve, reuse, and revise most appropriate cases to generate inspired solutions. However, traditional case-based reasoning based creative conceptual design models focus on design strategies research, pay little attention to defining a consistent knowledge representation model, and neglect the research to make various types of knowledge retrieval tractable. Faced with such drawbacks, the expected design knowledge cannot be retrieved properly, especially in cases where multidisciplinary knowledge is concerned or exact query terms are absent. In order to solve these issues, this paper presents a combined approach to support creative conceptual design process. First, function–behavior–structure knowledge cell is introduced as a unified consistent design knowledge representation model. Second, a hybrid similarity measure is proposed to increase the overall possibility of obtaining useful design knowledge by considering semantic understanding ability. Third, an intelligent creative conceptual design system has been developed with a case study of a novel insulin pump design to demonstrate its usage, and two experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms other case-based reasoning based creative conceptual design models.
Direct coagulation casting of alumina via controlled release of high valence counter ions using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) chelate complex as the coagulating agent was proposed. APP chelate complex suspension was prepared from APP and calcium chloride. Calcium used as high valence counter ions was chelated by APP. The average particle size of the chelate complex is 0.13 μm with a narrow particle size distribution which is close to the size of alumina particles. Glycerol diacetate was used to tailor the pH value of the suspension by hydrolysis which produces acetic acid. The lowering of the pH value helps to decompose the chelate complex, and enhance to release the calcium chelated. It is indicated that the viscosity of the suspensions with the addition of APP chelate complex suspension and glycerol diacetate increases to approximately 20 Pa s after heating at 40–70 °C for 1.5–5 h, which is high enough to coagulate the suspension. 55 vol% alumina suspension with a addition of 3 vol% APP chelate complex suspension and 5 vol% glycerol diacetate treated at 60 °C could coagulate completely within 2 h with a compressive strength of 2.1 MPa. Dense alumina with a relative density of above 97% and a flexural strength of 388 ± 23 MPa can be prepared by this method from 55 vol% alumina suspensions without a burnout process.
The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.
This study aims at understanding the effects of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the fading effect of Al–5Ti–1B in commercial pure Al. The results indicate that fading effect is obvious after adding Al–5Ti–1B to Al with a holding time of 20 min. It is fair to claim that the fading effect can be eliminated to a great extent when RMF with magnetic flux densities of 6 and 12 mT is applied until the temperature decreases to 662 °C, which is mainly attributed to the homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles caused by forced convection. However, refinement performance of pure Al by Al–5Ti–1B can be greatly weakened by RMF with an increase in magnetic flux density to 18 mT, since strong convection aggravates the agglomeration of TiB2 particles. In addition, the inoculated Al treated by a RMF of 6 mT until solidification exhibits a coarser solidification structure compared to that treated until the temperature decreased to 662 °C, which is mainly due to the prolongation of solidification time caused by Joule heat under RMF as proved by thermal analysis.
Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14–16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic α-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring.
A minimum feedback arc set of a directed graph G is a smallest set of arcs whose removal makes G acyclic. Its cardinality is denoted by β(G). We show that a simple Eulerian digraph with n vertices and m arcs has β(G) ≥ m2/2n2+m/2n, and this bound is optimal for infinitely many m, n. Using this result we prove that a simple Eulerian digraph contains a cycle of length at most 6n2/m, and has an Eulerian subgraph with minimum degree at least m2/24n3. Both estimates are tight up to a constant factor. Finally, motivated by a conjecture of Bollobás and Scott, we also show how to find long cycles in Eulerian digraphs.