To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A gravity-driven water film falling down an ice sheet is considered within the framework of a long-wave approximation. The integral-boundary-layer method, modified with the account of the phase transition, is adopted to describe the evolution of both the free surface of a water film and the interface between the ice and water. A set of governing equations consisting of five coupled nonlinear partial differential equations is established. The linear instability analysis of the uniform base flow is performed, and the result is in good agreement with the Orr–Sommerfeld analysis of the linearized Navier–Stokes equations. The phase transition at the interface between the ice and water plays a role in stabilizing the system linearly with long-wavelength perturbations. The nonlinear solutions of the steady travelling waves are constructed numerically. The phase transition tends to suppress the dispersion of the interfacial wave. Comparisons to direct numerical simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations, which are performed with an extended marker and cell method, show a remarkable agreement. The integral-boundary-layer method captures the water film thickness and the topography of the ice sheet satisfactorily. The phase transition is observed to enhance the backflow phenomenon in the capillary region of the solitary-like interfacial wave.
zinc is an essential micro-nutrient for growth and proper immune function. Yet there are limited data available on the prevalence of zinc deficiency among children aged 3–5 at the country level. This information will enable health planners to determine the need for zinc intervention activities and to stimulate further research into these areas.
materials and methods
The data on children aged 3–5 were extracted from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. By multi-stage stratified cluster randomly sampling method, 30 children aged 3–5 years old were selected from each region for this study from 55 counties in China to analyze serum zinc. Finally, 1472 children aged 3–5 years were included in the study. The concentration of serum zinc was determined by high resolution inductively coupled plasm mass spectrometry. High and low level quality control samples were used, measured value was (1.63 ± 0.04)mg/l and (2.80 ± 0.06)mg/l, respectively. CV of quality control samples were 1.69%~2.45%. The zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level < 70μg/dl with the standard of WHO.
serum zinc means of children aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.2)μg/dl and 3.9% children with zinc deficiency. serum zinc means level in urban children was (98.9 ± 17.6)μg/dl, and (91.6 ± 18.2)μg/dl in rural area. we showed that the serum zinc deficiency rate was higher in rural children (5.5%) than urban children (2.4%), and there were significant differences between these two areas. serum zinc means level in boys aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.7)μg/dl, and (95.3 ± 17.8)μg/dl in girls aged 3–5 years old. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 1.5%, 6.6% and 1.8% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban boys, respectively; 6.8%, 7.7% and 4.0% in rural boys, respectively. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 2.3%, 0.8% and 1.7% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban girls, respectively; 4.1%, 7.0% and 4.0% in rural girls, respectively. And there were differences between urban and rural areas in girls of 4~.5 years.
The zinc level of children aged 3–5 years in China has been improved compared with ten years ago, but the zinc deficiency of rural children is still lower than that of urban children, especially those aged 4 to 5 years in rural areas, so we should pay more attention to this group.
The cao vit gibbon Nomascus nasutus, also known as eastern black crested gibbon, is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and was considered one of the world's 25 most threatened primates. The only known population occurs along the border between China and Viet Nam. Accurate information on population size and dynamics is critical for the species’ conservation, but population surveys conducted in only one country may over- or underestimate total population size because the home ranges of cao vit gibbon groups often cross the international border. In 2007 and 2016 we conducted two collaborative transboundary censuses of the cao vit gibbon populations in the Trung Khanh Cao Vit Gibbon Species and Habitat Conservation Area in Viet Nam and the Bangliang Gibbon National Nature Reserve in China. The results showed a population size of 102–110 in 2007, which increased to 107–136 in 2016. Our results indicate that previous surveys conducted separately in Viet Nam and China underestimated the global population size of this species. According to our more comprehensive surveys, the gibbon population is increasing slowly. The gibbons and their habitat are legally protected in both countries. Hunting and charcoal making have not been reported in this area since 2007. As habitat carrying capacity is a limiting factor, habitat restoration is required. However, lack of funding to protect the cao vit gibbon remains a challenge.
The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt), which was established in 2006, is an ongoing study aiming to investigate the genetic and environmental etiology of adolescent psychopathology. Resting-state brain imaging datasets have been examined for same-sex twins, and other psychological traits and emotional and behavioral variables have been examined for all twins. Based on the registry, the main findings regarding the etiological mechanism underlying adolescent development, magnetic resonance imaging results, and genetic and environmental influences on other psychological traits have been published. This article summarizes the key findings in these three areas and discusses future plans for the BeTwiSt.
This paper investigates the generation of passive intermodulation (PIM) in coaxial connectors during vibration. A series of experiments were designed and the simulation model and method were proposed for understanding these phenomena. We found that PIM is mainly influenced by the contact stress and contact surface roughness during vibration. Thus, a power spectral density method is presented to identify the roughness parameter of contact surface based on the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot model, and the simulation model and method were verified by the relative experiments. Eventually, some suggestions for engineering application were provided.
Imaging studies have shown that the subcallosal region (SCR) volume was decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the volumetric reductions in the SCR are due to thinning of the cortex or a loss of surface area (SA) remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between cortical measurements of the SCR and age through the adult life span in MDD remains unclear.
We used a cross-sectional design from 114 individuals with MDD and 112 matched healthy control (HC) individuals across the adult life span (range: 18–74 years). The mean cortical volume (CV), SA and cortical thickness (CT) of the SCR were computed using cortical parcellation based on FreeSurfer software. Multivariate analyses of covariance models were performed to compare differences between the MDD and HC groups on cortical measurements of the SCR. Multiple linear regression models were used to test age-by-group interaction effects on these cortical measurements of the SCR.
The MDD had significant reductions in the CV and SA of the left SCR compared with HC individuals after controlling of other variables. The left SCR CV and SA reductions compared with matched controls were observed only in early adulthood patients. We also found a significant age-related CT reduction in the SCR both in the MDD and HC participants.
The SCR volume reduction was mainly driven by SA in MDD. The different trajectories between the CT and SA of the SCR with age may provide valuable information to distinguish pathological processes and normal ageing in MDD.
We show that, if
has a spatial derivative in the John–Nirenberg space
, then it generates a unique flow
which has an
density for each time
. Our condition on the map
is not only optimal but also produces a sharp quantitative estimate for the density. As a killer application we achieve the well-posedness for a Cauchy problem of the transport equation in
The composites were synthesized by the reaction of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O, KI, and MoS2 and were prepared with different molar ratios of Bi/Mo (1:5, 1:2, 1:1, and 4:1) by altering the amount of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate. The phase composition and chemical bonds of the composites were characterized via X-ray diffraction and FT-IR, and the morphologies of the samples were characterized via scanning electron microscopy. With the increase of lanthanum source, the lamellar structure of the sample surface became more and more obvious. The results showed that the phase composition of the composites with different ratios of Bi/Mo was different. When the Bi/Mo reached 4:1, the composite material was Bi2MoO6/BiOI. The heterojunction structure formed between Bi2MoO6 and BiOI effectively promotes the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and improved the photocatalytic activity. Therefore, the effect of the composites on the degradation of RhB was better than pure BiOI under the irradiation of a 350-W xenon lamp.
Here we report our recent prediction of the solar cycle 25 based on a newly developed scheme, which is used to investigate the predictability of the solar cycle over one cycle. The scheme is a combination of the empirical properties of solar cycles and a surface flux transport model to get the possible axial dipole moment evolution at a few years before cycle minimum, by which to get the subsequent cycle strength based on the correlation between the axial dipole moment at cycle minimum and the subsequent cycle strength. We apply this scheme to predict the large-scale field evolution since 2018 onwards. The results show that the northern polar field will keep on increasing, while the southern polar field almost keeps flat by the end of cycle 24. This leads to the cycle 25 strength of 125 ± 32, which is about 10% stronger than cycle 24 according to the mean value.
The kinematic modeling of the solar convection zone remains the workhorse of the solar dynamo to understand the solar cycle. During the past several years, the major progress in understanding the solar cycle using kinematic models is as follows. (1). The Babcock-Leighton (BL) mechanism was confirmed to be at the essence of the solar cycle. (2). The scatter of sunspot tilt angles is identified as a major cause of solar cycle irregularities. (3). The important roles of the magnetic pumping in the dynamo process are recognized. (4). Some 3D kinematic BL type dynamo models have been developed. As a key part of the solar dynamo loop, the surface observable part of the BL mechanism makes the physics-based solar cycle prediction feasible. Including the effects of the tilt scatter on the polar field generation, the possible strength of the subsequent cycle can be predicted when a cycle starts for a few years.
As a promising new way to generate a controllable strong magnetic field, laser-driven magnetic coils have attracted interest in many research fields. In 2013, a kilotesla level magnetic field was achieved at the Gekko XII laser facility with a capacitor–coil target. A similar approach has been adopted in a number of laboratories, with a variety of targets of different shapes. The peak strength of the magnetic field varies from a few tesla to kilotesla, with different spatio-temporal ranges. The differences are determined by the target geometry and the parameters of the incident laser. Here we present a review of the results of recent experimental studies of laser-driven magnetic field generation, as well as a discussion of the diagnostic techniques required for such rapidly changing magnetic fields. As an extension of the magnetic field generation, some applications are discussed.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a complex problem in high-power microwave devices and satellite communications. In this paper, an effective calculation method is proposed for predicting PIM power levels of the cascaded microwave devices. First of all, the analytical formula of intermodulation voltage is derived based on the nonlinear I–V characteristics of microwave devices. Then, the mathematical model of point sources is constructed by the transmission line theory and extended to the cascaded microwave devices. The passive intermodulation products (PIMP) of the cascaded microwave devices are evaluated based on the point-source model. The relationship of PIM between a single microwave device and the cascaded system is revealed. Eventually, the corresponding experiments are designed to verify the accuracy of point-source model and the cascaded model to predict the third-order PIM power level, which address the problem of PIM prediction of the cascaded microwave devices.
Three important low valent transition metal oxides were synthesized in supercritical methanol by using inorganic metal salts as precursors. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to analyze the composition, structure, and morphology of the products. Results showed that Cu2O, MoO2, and V2O3 were obtained successfully under a supercritical condition of 240 °C and 9.0 MPa. MoO2 and V2O3 displayed sphere-like morphology with average particle sizes of 20–40 and 20–50 nm, respectively. Cu2O particles displayed edge-truncated cubic morphology with a particle size of 2.5 μm. Formation mechanism proposed that high valent metal oxides (CuO, MoO3, and V2O5) were formed firstly in supercritical methanol by the decomposing of precursors and then reduced to target products by free hydroxyl anions. In addition, methanol performed important roles not only as a reaction medium but also as a reducing agent under supercritical fluid conditions.
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models. Moreover, the result of local field potentials (LFPs) records further demonstrated miR-124 may have anti-epilepsy function. Inhibition of neuronal firing by miR-124 was associated with the suppression of mEPSC, AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated currents, which were accompanied by decreased surface expression of NMDAR. In addition, miR-124 injection resulted in decreased activity and expression of cAMP-response element-binding protein1 (CREB1). a key regulator in epileptogenesis. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm that miR-124 targeted directly the 3′UTR of CREB1 gene and repressed the CREB1 expression in HEK293T cells. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that the CREB1 antibody effectively precipitated CREB1 and NMDAR1 but not GLUR1 from rat brain hippocampus. These results revealed a previously unknown function of miR-124 in neuronal excitability and provided a new insight into molecular mechanisms underlying epilepsy.
A diode-pumped alkali vapor laser (DPAL) is one of the most promising candidates of the next-generation high-powered laser source. As the saturated number density of alkali vapor is highly dependent on the temperature inside a vapor cell, the temperature distribution in the cross-section of a cell will greatly affect the homogeneity of a laser medium and the output characteristics of a DPAL. In this paper, we developed an algorithm based on the regime concluding quasi-Hilbert transform to evaluate the phase aberration of a wavefront when the probe beam passes through the vapor cell placed in one arm of a Mach–Zehnder interference setup. According to the theoretical algorithm, we deduced the temperature distribution of a cesium vapor cell for different heating conditions. The study is thought to be useful for development of a high-powered laser.
A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) provides the significant promise for high-powered performances. In this paper, a mathematical model is introduced for examination of the kinetic processes of a diode-pumped cesium vapor hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HC-PCF) laser, in which the cesium vapor is filled in the center hole of a photonic-bandgap fiber instead of a glass cell. The influence of deleterious processes including energy pooling, photo-ionization, and Penning ionization on the physical features of a fiber DPAL is studied in this report. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the deleterious processes cannot be ignored in a high-powered fiber-DPAL system.
Previous studies have shown that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts antibacterial, immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of enteral bLF supplementation on intestinal adaptation and barrier function in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Male Sprague–Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomised into three groups (n 10 per group): Sham group (rats submitted to bowel transection and reanastomosis); SBS group (rats submitted to 80 % small-bowel resection); SBS-bLF group (rats submitted to 80 % small-bowel resection plus treatment with bLF (0·5 g/kg per d) by oral administration from day 2 to day 20). Despite similar food intake, both the SBS and SBS-bLF groups exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, but increased villus height and crypt depth and a higher intestinal epithelial cell proliferation index (P< 0·05) when compared with the Sham group. Compared with that in the SBS group, in the SBS-bLF group, bacterial translocation to regional organs was low and intestinal permeability was significantly reduced. The SBS-bLF group also had increased secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations in ileal contents (29·9 (23·8–33·0) ng/ml), when compared with the other two groups having similar sIgA concentrations (17·5 (12·6–29·1) and 19·3 (11·5–27·0) ng/ml, respectively). The relative expression levels of two tight junction (TJ) proteins, occludin and claudin-4, in the SBS-bLF group were significantly higher than those in the SBS group (P< 0·05), but did not exhibit any significant differences when compared with those in the Sham group. In conclusion, enteral bLF supplementation up-regulates small-bowel sIgA concentrations and TJ protein expression and reduces intestinal permeability and could thus support intestinal barrier integrity and protect against bacterial infections in SBS.
Mesoporous Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a simple solution method at low temperature. The transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the mesoporous Fe3O4 nanoparticles are monodispersed with a mean diameter of 160 nm and the thickness of ZnO layer is 15 nm approximately. The porosity of the products was further substantiated by the nitrogen (N2) sorption measurement. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm curve can be identified as type IV, which is a characteristic of mesopores. Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption properties of the as-prepared Fe3O4@ZnO mesoporous spheres-wax composites were investigated at a room temperature in the frequency range of 0.5∼18 GHz. Interestingly, the Fe3O4@ZnO mesoporous spheres exhibit an enhanced EM wave absorption due to the mesoporous structure. The multiple absorbing mechanisms result from the interface polarization induced by the special core/shell and mesoporous structures as well as dipole polarization of both Fe3O4 and ZnO. The results demonstrate that the Fe3O4@ZnO mesoporous spheres are attractive candidates for a new kind of EM wave absorption materials with wide absorption frequency band.
Meningiomas account for approximately 24-30% of primary intracranial neoplasms. Histopathologic grade and degree of resection are two major prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the prognosis of meningioma.
We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression levels of Vav3, SPARC, p-Akt, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 in 287 meningiomas of all grades.
The expression of Vav3, SPARC, p-Akt, cyclin D1, and Ki- 67 significantly increased with meningioma grade (p<0.01), and was higher in brain-invasive meningiomas compared to non-invasive meningiomas (WHO grade I) (p<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of Vav3, p-Akt, and Ki-67 was higher in recurrent meningiomas compared to non-recurrent meningiomas (WHO grade I) (p<0.05).
The expression of Vav3, SPARC, p-Akt, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 in meningiomas appears to correlate with meningioma invasiveness, aggressiveness, and recurrence.