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HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
To evaluate the effects of dietary Ca intake and Ca supplementation during pregnancy on low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants.
A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010–2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China.
A birth cohort study.
Totally, 9595 pregnant women who came to the hospital for delivery at 20 weeks of gestation or more, and who were 18 years of age or older.
Compared with non-users, Ca supplement users had a reduced risk of LBW infants (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI: 0·63, 0·95) and a reduced risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI: 0·58, 0·98) (P < 0·05). More specifically, both the use of Ca supplement before conception and during pregnancy (OR = 0·44, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·99) and during pregnancy only (OR = 0·80, 95 % CI: 0·65, 0·99) had the main effect of reducing risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (P < 0·05). There was no association between Ca supplementation and SGA (OR = 0·87, 95 % CI: 0·75, 1·01) (P > 0·05). However, higher dietary Ca intake during pregnancy decreases the risk of both LBW (quartile 2: OR = 0·72, 95 % CI: 0·55, 0·94; quartile 3: OR = 0·68, 95 % CI: 0·50, 0·62) and SGA infants (quartile 2: OR = 0·77, 95 % CI: 0·63, 0·95; quartile 3: OR = 0·71, 95 % CI: 0·57, 0·88, quartile 4: OR = 0·71, 95 % CI: 0·57, 0·88) (P < 0·05).
Ca supplementation and adequate dietary intake of Ca during pregnancy are associated with a decreased risk of LBW infants born to nulliparous women.
HIV-1 drug resistance can compromise the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A survey of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance (PDR) was conducted in Lincang Prefecture of Yunnan Province. From 372 people living with HIV/AIDS initiating ART for the first time during 2017–2018, 322 pol sequences were obtained, of which 11 HIV-1 strain types were detected. CRF08_BC (70.2%, 226/322) was the predominant strain, followed by URF strains (10.6%, 34/322). Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected among 34.2% (110/322) of the participants. E138A/G/K/R (14.3%, 46/322) and V179E/D/T (13.7%, 47/322) were the predominant DRMs. Specifically, E138 mutations commonly occurred in CRF08_BC (19.9%, 45/226). Among the DRMs detected, some independently conferred resistance, such as K65R (1.6%, 5/322), Y188C/F/L (0.9%, 3/322), K103N (0.6%, 2/322) and G190A (0.3%, 1/322), which conferred high-level resistance. The prevalence of PDR was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.6–10.3%) and the prevalence of non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.6–7.4%), which is below the threshold (⩾10%) of initiating a public health response. In conclusion, HIV-1 genetic diversity and an overall moderate level of PDR prevalence were found in western Yunnan. PDR surveillance should be continually performed to decide whether a public health response to NNRTI resistance should be initiated.
Obesity and insulin resistance play important roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mg intake is linked to a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; people with NAFLD or alcoholic liver disease are at high risk of Mg deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate whether Mg and Ca intakes were associated with risk of fatty liver disease and prediabetes by alcohol drinking status.
We analysed the association between Ca or Mg intake and fatty liver disease, prediabetes or both prediabetes and fatty liver disease in cross-sectional analyses.
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) follow-up cohort of US adults.
Nationally representative sample of US adults in NHANES (n 13 489).
After adjusting for potential confounders, Mg intake was associated with approximately 30 % reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes, comparing the highest intake quartile v. the lowest. Mg intake may only be related to reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes in those whose Ca intake is less than 1200 mg/d. Mg intake may also only be associated with reduced odds of fatty liver disease among alcohol drinkers.
The study suggests that high intake of Mg may be associated with reduced risks of fatty liver disease and prediabetes. Further large studies, particularly prospective cohort studies, are warranted to confirm the findings.
Robotic hands use rolling contact to manipulate a grasped object to a desired location, even when the finger and the palm linkage mechanisms lack degrees of freedom. This paper presents a systematic approach to the forward and inverse kinematics of in-hand manipulation. The moving frame method in differential geometry is integrated into the product of exponential formula to establish a pure geometric framework of the kinematics of a robot hand. The forward and inverse kinematics of a multifingered hand are obtained in terms of the joint rates and contact trajectories. A two-fingered planar robot hand and a three-fingered spatial robot hand are used to demonstrate the proposed approach. The proposed formulation amounts to solving a univariate polynomial, providing an alternative to the existing ones that require numerical integration.
A correction method for linear hardening materials is brought forward to obtain the true (or nearly true) modulus of cylindrical specimens with middle aspect ratios in compression tests. By considering the stress concentration near the interface between the specimen and the compression platen caused by slanted contact, a “sandwich” model is developed. A correction formula is derived and all parameters can be obtained from the tested stress–strain curve. Experiments were performed on Al 2024 specimens with four aspect ratios. The corrected results are closer to the intrinsic modulus than the tested values, which verify the effectiveness of the correction method.
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers linked to the stem nematode resistance gene were developed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), 800 AFLP primer combinations were screened in the resistant and susceptible bulked DNA from the 186 progeny of an F1 single-cross population of Xu781 (resistant parent)×Xushu18 (susceptible parent), and 245 of these AFLP primers showed polymorphic bands between resistant and susceptible DNA. Primer combinations detecting polymorphism between the two bulks were used to screen the parents and eight individuals from each of the bulks. The results showed that E2M23 and E33M20 produced a specific band of about 500 bp and 200 bp in length, respectively, in the resistant plants but not in the susceptible plants, suggesting that the markers named E2M23500 and E33M20200 linked to a gene for stem nematode resistance. Amplified analysis of the 186 F1 individuals indicated that the genetic distance between these two markers and the stem nematode resistance gene was 6.9 cM and 11.1 cM, respectively, measured with Mapmaker 3.0. These two AFLP markers were used to identify ten sweet potato varieties planted widely in China and the results were consistent with those of conventional resistance identification, indicating that the two markers can be used in molecular marker-assisted breeding for stem nematode resistance in the sweet potato.
The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pig transgenic blastocysts expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to examine the effects of shape and preparation methods of donor cells on in vitro developmental ability of pig nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs). In experiment 1, the effect of GFP transfection on development of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage and blastocyst rates showed no significant difference between NTEs derived from transfected and non-transfected donors. In experiment 2, the effect of different nuclear donor preparation methods on in vitro development of NTEs was examined. The cleavage rate showed no statistically significant differences among three preparation methods. The blastocyst rates of donor cells treated once at −4 °C and those of freshly digested cells were similar to each other (26.3% vs 17.9%). The lowest blastocyst rates (5.88%) were observed when cells cryopreserved at −196 °C were used as donors. In experiment 3, the effect of different cell cycle synchronization methods on the in vitro development potential of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage rate of NTEs derived from cycling cells was much better than that of NTEs derived from serum-starved cells (64.4% vs 50.5%, p < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the the blastocyst rates of the two groups. In experiment 4, the effect of different shapes of cultured fibroblast cells on the in vitro development of pig NTEs was examined. The fusion rate for couplets derived from rough cells was poorer than that observed in couplets derived from round smooth cells (47.8% vs 76.8%, p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences observed in the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate. In conclusion, the present study indicated that (i) refrigerated pig GFP-transfected cells could be used as donors in nuclear transfer and these NTEs could be effectively developed to blastocyst stage; (ii) serum starvation of GFP-transfected cells is not required for preimplantation development of pig NTEs; and (iii) a rough surface of GFP-transfected donor cells affects fusion rate negatively but has no influence on the cleavage rate or blastocyst rate of pig NTEs.
Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes, both single-walled and multiwalled, have been a focus in materials research. Fundamental research and application development hinge on high-quality nanotube materials and controlled routes to their organization and assembly. The aim of this article is to provide updated information on recent progress in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes.
The interruption of long-range polar order in rhombohedral ferroelectricPb(Zr1−xTix)O3 (PZT) ceramics has been systematically studied by incorporating La onto the A-site of the perovskite (ABO3) structure for Zr/Ti ratios of 65/35 and 80/20 and various La contents. Studies have been performed by hot-stage transmission electron microscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and Sawyer–Tower polarization (P-E) techniques. The evolution of a polar nanodomain state from a normal micron-sized domain state with increasing La content was observed. The emergence of this polar cluster state was characterized by the onset of strong frequency dispersion in the dielectric response, indicative of relaxor behavior. The La content that drives the structure into the relaxor state was found to be related to the lattice distortion of the undoped base composition.
Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics Pb1−3/2xLax(Zr1−yTiy)O3 [PLZT 100x/100(1 − y)/100y] with Zr/Ti ratios close to the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric (AFE-FE) phase boundary were investigated by dielectric spectroscopy, Sawyer–Tower polarization techniques, and electron microscopy. An incommensurate antiferroelectric (AFEIn) phase was found to be stabilized from the rhombohedral FE state in the compositional series 100x/90/10 for x ≥ 0.02. The La content required to induce the AFEIn state increased as the Ti content was increased. For 100x/85/15, a state with relaxor-like dielectric behavior and nanodomains was observed to develop with increasing La content; however, the double-loop-like P-E curves were suggestive of antiferroelectric behavior. Investigations for the composition 6/85/15 revealed the formation of nanodomains from the AFEIn modulation, where the size of the nanodomains equaled the value of the AFEIn modulation wavelength. For this composition, P-E studies revealed double hysteresis characteristics, whereas dielectric investigations revealed relaxor-like behavior. It is suggested that the order within the nanodomain state may be antipolar over a range of compositions in high La content rhombohedral PLZT ceramics.
The electromechanical properties of (Pb1−xLax)(ZryTi1−y)O3 [PLZT x/y/(1 - y)] have been investigated in the compositional range 0 < x < 0.10 for y = 0.65 (rhombohedral PLZT) and 0 < x < 0.18 for y = 0.40 (tetragonal PLZT). Both field-induced strains (∊-E) associated with polarization switching and piezoelectric responses (d33) were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dielectric investigations were also performed. Room temperature TEM investigations revealed common trends in the domain structure with increasing La content for both PLZT x/65/35 and x/40/60, including a micron-sized domain structure, a subdomain tweed-like structure, and a nanopolar domain state. Changes in the field-induced strains and piezoelectric properties were then related to these microstructural trends. The dominant electromechanical coupling mechanism in the micron-sized domain state was found to be piezoelectricity. However, an electrostrictive coupling became apparent with the appearance of the subdomain tweed-like structures, and became stronger in the nanopolar domain state. It is believed that polarization switching can-occur through 70°or 110°domains, the subdomain tweed-like structure, or nanopolar domains depending on La content.
Incommensuate antiferroelectric tin-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics, PbNb0.02[(Zr1−x,Snx)1−yTiy]0.98O3, have been studied by Sawyer-Tower polarization and electrically-induced strain (ε-E) techniques. Sawyer-Tower polarization studies revealed antiferroelectric-ferroelectric (AFE-FE) P-E loops. Investigations then revealed that the electrically-induced strain associated with the AFE-FE transformation was not realized until field strengths significantly above that required for polarization saturation. It is believed that the electrically-induced strain is decoupled from the polarization due to AFEFE switching by the modulation of the phase of a <110> incommensurate structure. At field strengths above saturation, the commensurate rhombohedral ferroelectric state is believed to be induced from an incommensurate orthorhombic ferroelectric, and the electrically-induced strain is then realized.
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