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Glyphosate-resistant populations of Conyza canadensis have been spreading at a rapid rate in Ontario, Canada, since first being documented in 2010. Determining the genetic relationship among existing Ontario populations is necessary to understand the spread and selection of the resistant biotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the genetic variation of C. canadensis accessions from the province of Ontario using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and (2) investigate the molecular mechanism (s) conferring resistance in these accessions. Ninety-eight C. canadensis accessions were genotyped using 8 SSR markers. Germinable accessions were challenged with glyphosate to determine their dose response, and the sequences of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes 1 and 2 were obtained. Results indicate that a majority of glyphosate-resistant accessions from Ontario possessed a proline to serine substitution at position 106, which has previously been reported to confer glyphosate resistance in other crop and weed species. Accessions possessing this substitution demonstrated notably higher levels of resistance than non–target site resistant (NTSR) accessions from within or outside the growing region and were observed to form a subpopulation genetically distinct from geographically proximate glyphosate-susceptible and NTSR accessions. Although it is unclear whether other non–target site resistance mechanisms are contributing to the levels of resistance observed in target-site resistant accessions, these results indicate that, at a minimum, selection for Pro-106-Ser has occurred in addition to selection for non–target site resistance and has significantly enhanced the levels of resistance to glyphosate in C. canadensis accessions from Ontario.
Common ragweed is one of the most important weeds in the soybean-producing areas of the United States and Canada. Recently, glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes have been reported in 15 states and one Canadian province. Reducing the proliferation of GR common ragweed biotypes is complicated by the high fecundity and complex seed germination behavior exhibited by this species. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of late herbicide applications for reducing seed production, seed weight, and seed viability of a GR common ragweed biotype. Herbicide treatments included: water control, glyphosate, 2,4-D, dicamba, 2,4-D plus glyphosate, and dicamba plus glyphosate. Treatments were applied at the appearance of male flower buds (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and Chemical industry scale [BBCH] 51) or at the early female flowering stage (BBCH 61 to 63). At BBCH 51, 2,4-D or dicamba applied alone or in a tank mix with glyphosate reduced seed production by an average of 80%. Conversely, seed production following these same treatments applied at BBCH 61 to 63 was not significantly different from when glyphosate was applied alone. At this stage of development, all herbicide treatments reduced seed viability relative to the control; however, treatments containing 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in significantly lower viability than when glyphosate was applied alone. These results suggest that the application of tank mixes containing 2,4-D or dicamba have the potential to limit seed production of GR common ragweed when applied on or before BBCH 51. The development of new technologies that facilitate the in-crop application of tank mixes containing 2,4-D or dicamba may therefore be an effective option for limiting population establishment, seedbank replenishment, and future spread of glyphosate-resistant alleles.
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