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Several epidemiological studies have been performed to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the results remain controversial. Thus, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to assess the associations of fruit or/and vegetable consumption with risk of MetS, separately.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases up to July 2017 for relevant available articles. Pooled OR with 95 % CI were calculated with the fixed- or random-effects model.
A total of nine studies for fruit consumption, nine studies for vegetable consumption and seven studies for fruit and vegetable consumption were identified as eligible for the present meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95 % CI) of MetS for the highest v. lowest category were 0·87 (0·82, 0·92; I2=46·7 %) for fruit consumption, 0·85 (0·80, 0·91; I2=0·0 %) for vegetable consumption and 0·76 (0·62, 0·93; I2=83·5 %) for fruit and vegetable consumption. In subgroup analyses stratified by continent where the study was conducted, the inverse association of fruit consumption (0·86 (0·77, 0·96)) and vegetable consumption (0·86 (0·80, 0·92)) with risk of MetS remained significant in Asia. There was no evidence of small-study effect.
Our meta-analysis indicates that fruit or/and vegetable consumption may be inversely associated with risk of MetS. It suggests that people should consume more fruits and vegetables to decrease the risk of MetS.
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