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Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows in a spatially developing turbulent thermal boundary layer over an isothermally heated wall have been performed with realistic fully developed turbulent inflow boundary conditions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time the effects of inertial solid particles on turbulent flow and heat transfer in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer have been investigated, using a two-way coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian method. Results indicate that the presence of particles increases the mean streamwise velocity and temperature gradients of the fluid in the near-wall region. As a result, the skin-friction drag and heat transfer are significantly enhanced in the particle-laden flows with respect to the single-phase flow. The near-wall sweep and ejection motions are suppressed by the particles and hence the Reynolds shear stress and wall-normal turbulent heat flux are attenuated, which leads to reductions in the production of the turbulent kinetic energy and temperature fluctuations. In addition, the coherence and spacing of the near-wall velocity and temperature streaky structures are distinctly increased, while the turbulent vortical structures appear to be disorganized under the effect of the particles. Moreover, the intensity of the streamwise vortices decreases monotonically with increasing particle inertia.
In this paper, a systematic investigation of turbulence modulation by particles and its underlying physical mechanisms in decaying compressible isotropic turbulence is performed by using direct numerical simulations with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point-source approach. Particles interact with turbulence through two-way coupling and the initial turbulent Mach number is 1.2. Five simulations with different particle diameters (or initial Stokes numbers,
) are conducted while fixing both their volume fraction and particle densities. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence modulation are analysed through investigating the particle motion in the different cases and the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity and dilatation, especially the two-way coupling terms. Our results show that microparticles (
) augment turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid, critical particles (
) enhance the rotational motion of fluid, and large particles (
) attenuate turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid. The compressibility of the turbulence field is suppressed for all the cases, and the suppression is more significant if the Stokes number of particles is close to 1. The modifications of turbulent kinetic energy, the rotational motion and the compressibility are all related with the particle inertia and distributions, and the suppression of the compressibility is attributed to the preferential concentration and the inertia of particles.
The Brownian motion of a nanoparticle in fluid depends on the molecular forces acting on it. Because of the small size and the high frequency, it is difficult to make experimental measurements of these forces. In the present work, Brownian forces acting on a nanoparticle are numerically investigated with the molecular dynamics method. Some new phenomena are disclosed. (i) The probability distribution shows that the Brownian forces conform to the Gaussian distribution and self-similarity of the probability distribution is also found for different
numbers which are characterized with the particle radius and the mean path
of the gas molecule
. (ii) The frequency spectrum distribution of the Brownian force is not a white noise spectrum, which is different from the assumption commonly used in Langevin model. The preferential frequency of the Brownian force is found. (iii) The size effect relating to the Brownian forces is not monotonically varying with
and is also found. It first increases and then decreases after it reaches the maximum value at
. The variation process for
observed in the present work has not been reported in previous research to date.
Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate have been performed to investigate the effect of inertial particles on turbulence modulation, using the Eulerian–Lagrangian point-particle approach with two-way coupling. The particles are smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale of the dilute flow, and inter-particle collisions are not considered. The simulation results show that the addition of small solid particles increases the mean streamwise fluid velocity, which in turn leads to a reduction in the boundary layer integral parameters and an increase in the skin-friction drag. These effects become more pronounced as the particle Stokes number and mass loading increase. The streamwise turbulence intensity is slightly enhanced in the close vicinity of the wall but damped in the outer layer. In contrast, the Reynolds stress and the turbulence intensities in the wall-normal and spanwise directions are substantially attenuated across the entire boundary layer, and the levels of attenuation increase monotonically with both particle Stokes number and mass loading. The exchange of kinetic energy between particles and fluid indicates that particle–fluid interactions cause extra energy dissipation, which plays a crucial role in turbulence modulation.
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