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zinc is an essential micro-nutrient for growth and proper immune function. Yet there are limited data available on the prevalence of zinc deficiency among children aged 3–5 at the country level. This information will enable health planners to determine the need for zinc intervention activities and to stimulate further research into these areas.
materials and methods
The data on children aged 3–5 were extracted from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. By multi-stage stratified cluster randomly sampling method, 30 children aged 3–5 years old were selected from each region for this study from 55 counties in China to analyze serum zinc. Finally, 1472 children aged 3–5 years were included in the study. The concentration of serum zinc was determined by high resolution inductively coupled plasm mass spectrometry. High and low level quality control samples were used, measured value was (1.63 ± 0.04)mg/l and (2.80 ± 0.06)mg/l, respectively. CV of quality control samples were 1.69%~2.45%. The zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level < 70μg/dl with the standard of WHO.
serum zinc means of children aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.2)μg/dl and 3.9% children with zinc deficiency. serum zinc means level in urban children was (98.9 ± 17.6)μg/dl, and (91.6 ± 18.2)μg/dl in rural area. we showed that the serum zinc deficiency rate was higher in rural children (5.5%) than urban children (2.4%), and there were significant differences between these two areas. serum zinc means level in boys aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.7)μg/dl, and (95.3 ± 17.8)μg/dl in girls aged 3–5 years old. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 1.5%, 6.6% and 1.8% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban boys, respectively; 6.8%, 7.7% and 4.0% in rural boys, respectively. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 2.3%, 0.8% and 1.7% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban girls, respectively; 4.1%, 7.0% and 4.0% in rural girls, respectively. And there were differences between urban and rural areas in girls of 4~.5 years.
The zinc level of children aged 3–5 years in China has been improved compared with ten years ago, but the zinc deficiency of rural children is still lower than that of urban children, especially those aged 4 to 5 years in rural areas, so we should pay more attention to this group.
A nanoparticle-based drug delivery system is first established by mesoporous silica encapsulating amino acid–intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) to construct nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS. The amino acids including phenylalanine (Phe) and histidine (His) with aromatic groups are intercalated into LDH as the cores Phe-LDH and His-LDH. These nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS display multispaces of the interlayer spaces of LDH and porous channels of mesoporous silica to load drugs. Moreover, amino acid molecules provide the interaction sites to improve effectively loading amounts of drugs. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as the cargo molecules to observe the delivery in vitro. The results indicate that the maximum loading amounts of drugs are up to 392 mg/g at 60 °C for 12 h in the nanocomposite Phe-LDH@MS. All the nanocomposites exhibit the sustained release of 5-FU at pH 4 and pH 7.4. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model is used to fit the kinetic plot of the drug release in vitro, which concludes that 5-FU release from AA-LDH@MS belongs to Fickian diffusion.
Atomic force microscope (AFM) is an idealized tool to measure the physical and chemical properties of the sample surfaces by reconstructing the force curve, which is of great significance to materials science, biology, and medicine science. Frequency modulation atomic force microscope (FM-AFM) collects the frequency shift as feedback thus having high force sensitivity and it accomplishes a true noncontact mode, which means great potential in biological sample detection field. However, it is a challenge to establish the relationship between the cantilever properties observed in practice and the tip–sample interaction theoretically. Moreover, there is no existing method to reconstruct the force curve in FM-AFM combining the higher harmonics and the higher flexural modes. This paper proposes a novel method that a full force curve can be reconstructed by any order higher harmonics of the first two flexural modes under any vibration amplitude in FM-AFM. Moreover, in the small amplitude regime, short range forces are reconstructed more accurately by higher harmonics analysis compared with fundamental harmonics using the Sader–Jarvis formula.
As a promising new way to generate a controllable strong magnetic field, laser-driven magnetic coils have attracted interest in many research fields. In 2013, a kilotesla level magnetic field was achieved at the Gekko XII laser facility with a capacitor–coil target. A similar approach has been adopted in a number of laboratories, with a variety of targets of different shapes. The peak strength of the magnetic field varies from a few tesla to kilotesla, with different spatio-temporal ranges. The differences are determined by the target geometry and the parameters of the incident laser. Here we present a review of the results of recent experimental studies of laser-driven magnetic field generation, as well as a discussion of the diagnostic techniques required for such rapidly changing magnetic fields. As an extension of the magnetic field generation, some applications are discussed.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
A high power laser system was used to drive the ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), of which the high energy, the uniform focal spot, the accurate laser waveform, and the synchronization between the laser beams are key parameters. To accomplish this, global laser characteristics control should be assured, which was the main purpose of the injection laser system. In this paper, the key technological progress involved in the improvement of the performance of the injection laser of SG-II is reported, including frequency domain control, time domain control, near-field spatial shaping, pre-amplifier technology, and the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pump source.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
The need to ensure food safety has been recognized in China and the ‘Green Food’ system is used to restrict the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in its certified products. There has been limited study of the environmental impacts associated with the production of green food certified (GFC) products in China. In this study, life cycle assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts of GFC cucumber cultivated under a greenhouse system in the suburbs of Beijing relative to conventional cultivation (CON), with the aim of identifying the key areas of potential environmental burden in cucumber cultivation. Eight environmental impact categories are considered, including global warming potential, energy depletion (ED), water depletion, acidification potential, aquatic eutrophication (AEU), human toxicity (HT), aquatic eco-toxicity (AET) and soil eco-toxicity (SET). Results showed that the environmental index of the GFC cucumber system was higher than that of the CON cucumber system. SET, EU and ED were identified as the main potential environmental impacts in cucumber systems, largely caused by fertilizer use on the farm. The potentials of HT and AET in GFC cucumber were lower than those in the CON system, mainly due to the reduced use of chemical pesticides. The agricultural input of plastics was the main contributor to energy depletion in both cucumber cultivation systems. Potential approaches to mitigate the environmental impacts of cucumber cultivation include increasing the fertilizer use efficiency, avoiding use of animal manure with high heavy metal content and recycling of plastics under the GFC cultivation system.
Metallic phase-change materials (PCMs) attract much attention due to their high thermal conductivity in thermal energy storage. Our previous work reported a kind of Cu@Cr@Ni bilayer capsules, which could endure at least 1000 thermal cycles between 1323 and 1423 K without leakage, and might be a potential high-temperature metallic PCM. This study numerically investigates the thermal energy charging performance of Cu@Cr@Ni capsules for recovering high-temperature waste heat at both constant and periodically fluctuant heat transfer fluid temperatures. It was revealed that only a short and slight sloped melting platform existed in the curve of outlet temperature due to the ultrahigh thermal conductivity of copper; with higher inlet velocities, the outlet and mean temperatures of such PCM increased and meanwhile the energy transfer efficiency decreased; the outlet and mean temperatures of the PCM and the liquid fraction in it were rather insensitive to the period of the inlet temperature fluctuation; and the amplitude of inlet temperature fluctuation, ±50 K, was sharply reduced to 5 K due to the thermal damping of the PCM.
Optical damages, which severely degrade the output energy performance of Nd:glass regenerative amplifiers, are discussed in detail in this paper. By a series of experiments, it has been confirmed that these damages result from laser-induced contamination. Based on this work, several improvements are made to boost output energy performance of the regenerative amplifier. The output energy of the regenerative amplifier after improvements declines 4% after 1000 h of operation, much less than it used to, 60% after 560 h of operation.
Coccolithophores and Parmales are important functional groups of calcified and siliceous marine nanophytoplankton. Large-scale biogeographic distributions of the two groups were investigated based on 71 samples that were collected in the Atlantic Ocean. Using a scanning electron microscope, a total of 48 taxa of coccolithophores and eight taxa of Parmales were recorded, with Emiliania huxleyi, Tetraparma pelagica and Triparma strigata as the predominant forms. The highest abundances of coccolithophores (376 × 103 cells l−1) and Parmales (624 × 103 cells l−1) were observed in waters north-east of the Falkland Islands and the South Georgia Island, in close association with the Subantarctic Front and Polar Front, respectively. Three major biogeographic assemblages, i.e. the Falkland Shelf Assemblage, the Southern Ocean Assemblage and the Atlantic Ocean Assemblage, were revealed in cluster analysis. Additionally, canonical correspondence analysis indicated that temperature significantly affects the latitudinal patterns of the two algal groups. High abundances of Parmales were closely coupled with those of E. huxleyi in waters of the Southern Ocean with low temperature (<10°C). However, the number of coccolithophore species, along with the Shannon–Weaver diversity, significantly increased with elevated temperature, suggesting more diverse assemblages in tropical waters.
The processing method applied to the side surface is different from the method applied to the light pass surface in neodymium phosphate glass (Nd:glass), and thus subsurface defects remain after processing. The subsurface defects in the side surface influence the gain uniformity of Nd:glass, which is a key factor to evaluate the performance of amplifiers. The scattering characteristics of side subsurface defects were simulated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) Solutions software. The scattering powers of the glass fabricated by a computer numerical control (CNC) machine without cladding were tested at different incident angles. The trend of the curve was similar to the simulated result, while the smallest point was different with the complex true morphology. The simulation showed that the equivalent residual reflectivity of the cladding glass can be more than 0.1% when the number of defects in a single gridding is greater than 50.
A method to evaluate damage in optical elements with the near field of an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) beam has been developed. Local peak intensities are generally distributed randomly in the near field of a laser beam. The partial coherence of the ASE source results in a very smooth beam profile. The coherence time of ASE is much less than the pulse width. Small-scale intensity modulations can be smoothed out rapidly within the time of a pulse width. In the experiments, ASE is generated from a multifunctional high-performance Nd:glass system, with a pulse duration of 3 ns, a spectral width (full width at half maximum, FWHM) of 1 nm and an adjustable energy range from 1 to 10 J. The damage thresholds of samples induced by ASE are two to three times higher than those induced by a laser with the same size of test spot. Furthermore, the ASE beam has great potential for the detection of defects over a large area and the conditioning of optical elements.
The properties of a series of phase measurement techniques, including interferometry, the Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor, the knife-edge technique, and coherent diffraction imaging, are summarized and their performance in high power laser applications is compared. The advantages, disadvantages, and application ranges of each technique are discussed.
The driving mechanism of solar flares and coronal mass ejections is a topic of ongoing debate, apart from the consensus that magnetic reconnection plays a key role during the impulsive process. While present solar research mostly depends on observations and theoretical models, laboratory experiments based on high-energy density facilities provide the third method for quantitatively comparing astrophysical observations and models with data achieved in experimental settings. In this article, we show laboratory modeling of solar flares and coronal mass ejections by constructing the magnetic reconnection system with two mutually approaching laser-produced plasmas circumfused of self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. Due to the Euler similarity between the laboratory and solar plasma systems, the present experiments demonstrate the morphological reproduction of flares and coronal mass ejections in solar observations in a scaled sense, and confirm the theory and model predictions about the current-sheet-born anomalous plasmoid as the initial stage of coronal mass ejections, and the behavior of moving-away plasmoid stretching the primary reconnected field lines into a secondary current sheet conjoined with two bright ridges identified as solar flares.
We conduct a comparative study mainly on two types of nc-Si based solar cell structures, a-Si/a-SiGe/nc-Si triple-junction and a-Si/nc-Si double-junction. We have attained comparable initial efficiency for the both solar cell structures, 10.8∼11.8% initial total area efficiency (85 - 95W over an area of 0.79 m2). For better compatibility to our installed manufacturing equipment, we deposit a-Si and a-SiGe component cells with the existing deposition machines. Only nc-Si bottom component cells are prepared in separate deposition machines tailored for nc-Si process. Material properties of nc-Si and TCO films are also studied by Raman spectra, SEM, and AFM.
A total of twenty-seven species of marine-living coccolithophores were recorded from seawater samples that were collected during two spring cruises along the shelf regions of the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS). They were classified into ten families and four orders, with some additional species incertae sedis. Most of these species were heterococcolithophores, and no holococcolithophores were examined from the YS waters. Six species were recorded for the first time from the coastal waters of the China Seas and their morphological characteristics are described and photographically illustrated in this paper. They were Cyrtosphaera lecaliae, Syracosphaera histrica, Syracosphaera marginaporata, Pappomonas cf. sp. type 3, Calyptrolithophora papillifera and Corisphaera strigilis. Three types of Emiliania huxleyi, type A, type B/C and type C, were examined. Species of the genus Syracosphaera, in addition to E. huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, frequently occurred at the surveyed sites. The coccolithophore assemblages in the offshore waters of the ECS were characterized by high species diversity—fourteen species in one sample. This finding indicated that the shelf waters adjacent to the Kuroshio path were ideal habitats for living coccolithophores. The variation in taxonomic composition of these algae could be associated with differences in their preferred habitats.
A ∼500 kV/400 kA/100 ns pulsed power generator (PPG-I) for
x-pinch experiments was designed and constructed at Tsinghua University.
It is composed of a Marx generator, a combined pulse forming line (PFL), a
gas-filled V/N field distortion switch, a transfer line, and a
copper-sulphate resistive load for testing. The PPG-I implements a novel
design in lines that four pieces of waterline with impedance 5Ω in
parallel constitute a combined PFL with 1.25Ω, and incorporate each
other by a common self-break V/N switch on a matched 1.25Ω
transfer line. At the peak charging voltage of the PFL, the V/N switch
breaks down in multi-channel discharge mode, and electric energy is fed
into the testing load through the 1.25Ω transfer line. This article
presents the design and test of the PPG-I generator.
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