Symmetries play a central role in physics. They dictate what one can change in a physical system without affecting any of its properties. You might have encountered symmetries like translational symmetry, where a system remains unchanged if it is spatially translated by an arbitrary distance. A system with rotational symmetry, however, is invariant under rotations. Some symmetries, like the ones mentioned above, give information about the structure of the system. Others have to do with the more fundamental physical framework that we adopt. An example for this is the invariance under Lorentz transformations in relativistic physics.
Other types of symmetries can be even more subtle. For example, it is rather self-evident that physics should remain unchanged if we exchange two identical point-like particles. Nevertheless, this fundamental property that we call statistical symmetry gives rise to rich and beautiful physics. In three spatial dimensions it dictates the existence of bosons and fermions. These are particles with very different quantum mechanical properties. Their wave function acquires a +1 or a -1 phase, respectively, whenever two particles are exchanged. A direct consequence of this is that bosons can actually occupy the same state. In contrast, fermions can only be stacked together with each particle occupying a different state.
When one considers two spatial dimensions, a wide variety of statistical behaviours is possible. Apart from bosonic and fermionic behaviours, arbitrary phase factors, or even non-trivial unitary evolutions, can be obtained when two particles are exchanged (Leinaas and Myrheim, 1977).