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It is essential to investigate the experiences behind why adolescents start and continue to self-harm in order to develop targeted treatment and prevent future self-harming behaviours.
The aims of this study are to understand the motivations for initiating and repeating nonfatal self-harm, the different methods used between first-time and repeated self-harm and the reasons that adolescents do not seek help from health services.
Adolescents with repeated nonfatal self-harm experiences were recruited to participate in individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. The interviews were analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis.
We found that nonfatal self-harm among adolescents occurred comparatively early and was often triggered by specific reasons. However, the subsequent nonfatal self-harm could be causeless, with repeated self-harm becoming a maladaptive coping strategy to handle daily pressure and negative emotions. The choice of tools used was related to the ease of accessibility, the life-threatening risk and the size of the scars. Adolescents often concealed their scars on purpose, which made early identification insufficient. Peer influence, such as online chat groups encouraging self-harm by discussing and sharing self-harm pictures, could also lead to increased self-harm. The results also included participants’ opinions on how to stop nonfatal self-harm and their dissatisfaction with the current healthcare services.
The current study provides important implications both for early identification and interventions for adolescents who engage in repeated nonfatal self-harm, and for individualising treatment planning that benefits them. It is also worthwhile to further investigate how peer influence and social media may affect self-harm in adolescents.
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an efficient tool to exchange positioning data among participating naval units and land control centres. It was developed primarily as an advanced tool for assistance to sailors during navigation and for the safety of the life at sea. Maritime security has become a major concern for all coastal nations, especially after September 11, 2001. The fundamental requirement is maritime domain awareness via identification, tracking and monitoring of vessels within their waters and this is exactly what an AIS could bring. This paper will be focused on how the AIS-derived information could be used for coastal security, maritime traffic management, vessel tracking and monitoring with the help of GIS technology. The AIS data used in this paper was collected by the Canadian national aerial surveillance program.
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