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The plasma in the scrape-off layer (SOL) has an important effect on the coupling of the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The high-frequency B-dot (HFB) probes have been installed to investigate the behaviour of ICRF waves on EAST. The fast and slow ICRF wave field amplitudes are measured and a domain parallel wavenumber is deduced. Results of measurements on a test experimental platform and EAST experiments are presented, which include vacuum and plasma situations. In vacuum it is found that field amplitudes increase linearly with ICRF power. Besides, during plasma operation, field amplitudes measured were decreased by an order of magnitude and no linear relation with power was observed. Fast and slow wave power densities fluctuate strongly with plasma density. The experimental results in the laboratory coincide with the simulation results and allow for validating of the measurement method.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) provides an integrity service for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The conventional RAIM algorithm is based on the assumption of a single fault and typically uses the forward-backward method, which is based on the w-test or correlation analysis methods, to exclude the faults. It is suitable for single fault detection and exclusion, while it can lead to inefficiency, can be misleading and can even fail in the exclusion of multiple faults. To solve this problem, an improved method based on consensus voting of the w-test and correlation analysis methods is presented. To verify the performance of the improved method, tests using Global Positioning System (GPS)/BeiDou System (BDS) data have been carried out in comparison with the conventional methods in terms of false and correct faults exclusion rate and computational complexity in the case of a different number of faults. Results show that the improved method has almost the same correct exclusion rate compared to the conventional RAIM in the case of a single fault. It is worth noting that the improved method has a higher correct exclusion probability and computational efficiency as well as a lower possibility of false exclusion in the case of multiple faults.
Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been evolved as a cost-effective technique for highly precise maritime positioning. For a long period, maritime PPP technology has mainly relied on the Global Positioning System (GPS). With the revitalisation of GLONASS and the emerging BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS), it is now feasible to investigate real-time navigation performance of multi-constellation maritime PPP with GPS, BDS and GLONASS. In this contribution, we focus on maritime PPP performance using real world maritime kinematic data and real-time satellite correction products. The results show that BDS has lower position accuracy and slower convergence time than GPS. The BDS and GPS combination has the best performance among the dual-constellation configurations. Meanwhile, the integration of BDS, GLONASS and GPS significantly improves the position accuracy and the convergence time. Some outliers in the single constellation configuration can be mitigated when multi-constellation observations are utilised.
To deepen our understanding of organizations’ heterogeneous responses to institutional demand, we develop a ‘relational complexity’ argument to highlight organizations’ diverse institutional linkages as another important source of practice variation. We argue that diverse relations between organizations and the institutional authority can filter distinct institutional pressures and expectations, shape organizational interpretations of environmental demands, and thus trigger heterogeneous organizational practices. We adopt this theoretical framework and distinguish two types of institutional linkages with the state to understand different adoption patterns in corporate social responsibility (CSR) in its early stage of diffusion in China. Based on a national survey dataset consisting of 1,268 firms, our analyses show that firms having a stronger bureaucratic linkage with the state tend to focus on more visible external-oriented CSR practices. In contrast, those firms forming a closer partnership with the state through political or semi-political associations are more likely to take more extensive adoptions by further developing internal CSR structures. This study enriches the institutional analyses by shifting our attention to the relational dynamics between organizations and institutional authority as a key source of practice variation. It also has important implications to the research and practices of CSR in emerging economies.
A large schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a
subsequent extensive replication study of individuals of European
ancestry identified eight new loci with genome-wide significance and
suggested that the MIR137-mediated pathway plays a role
in the predisposition for schizophrenia.
To validate the above findings in a Han Chinese population.
We analysed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the newly
identified schizophrenia candidate loci and predicted
MIR137 target genes based on our published Han
Chinese populations (BIOX) GWAS data. We then analysed 18 SNPs from the
candidate regions in an independent cohort that consisted of 3585
patients with schizophrenia and 5496 controls of Han Chinese
We replicated the associations of five markers
(P<0.05), including three that were located in the
predicted MIR137 target genes. Two loci
(ITIH3/4: rs2239547, P
=1.17×10–10 and CALN1: rs2944829,
P=9.97×10–9) exhibited genome-wide
significance in the Han Chinese population.
The ITIH3/4 locus has been reported to be of genome-wide
significance in the European population. The successful replication of
this finding in a different ethnic group provides stronger evidence for
the association between schizophrenia and ITIH3/4. We
detected the first genome-wide significant association of schizophrenia
with CALN1, which is a predicted target of
MIR137, and thus provide new evidence for the
associations between MIR137 targets and
The prevalence and factors associated with delays in help seeking for people with dementia in China are unknown.
Within 1,010 consecutively registered participants in the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study (NCT01779310), 576 persons with dementia (PWDs) and their informants reported the estimated time from symptom onset to first medical visit seeking diagnosis. Univariate analysis of general linear model was used to examine the potential factors associated with the delayed diagnosis seeking.
The median duration from the first noticeable symptom to the first visit seeking diagnosis or treatment was 1.77 years. Individuals with a positive family history of dementia had longer duration (p = 0.05). Compared with other types of dementia, people with vascular dementia (VaD) were referred for diagnosis earliest, and the sequence for such delays was: VaD < Alzheimer's disease (AD) < frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (p < 0.001). Subtypes of dementia (p < 0.001), family history (p = 0.01), and education level (p = 0.03) were associated with the increased delay in help seeking.
In China, seeking diagnosis for PWDs is delayed for approximately 2 years, even in well-established memory clinics. Clinical features, family history, and less education may impede help seeking in dementia care.
White sponge nevus (WSN) in the oral mucosa is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. The involved mucosa is white or greyish, thickened, folded and spongy. The genes associated with WSN include mutant cytokeratin keratin 4 (KRT4) and keratin 13 (KRT13). In recent years, new cases of WSN and associated mutations have been reported. Here, we summarise the recent progress in our understanding of WSN, including clinical reports, genetics, animal models, treatment, pathogenic mechanisms and future directions. Gene-based diagnosis and gene therapy for WSN may become available in the near future and could provide a reference and instruction for treating other KRT-associated diseases.
A high power conversion efficiency above 1% from a bulk crystalline silicon (c-Si) light-emitting diode (LED) has been demonstrated at near room temperature. These devices are based on normally weak one- and two-phonon assisted sub-bandgap light emission processes. Their improved performance results from device designs that take advantage of enhanced light absorption by a light trapping scheme which was developed for high efficiency silicon solar cells, and from reducing scope for parasitic non-radiative recombination within the diode. Each feature individually is shown to improve efficiency by a factor of ten, accounting for an improvement by factor of one hundred compared to baseline devices.
Also demonstrated is a greatly improved band-edge light emission and detection using bulk c-Si diodes. A bulk c-Si LED is combined with a similar diode used as a detector that collects the light emitted with a high quantum collection efficiency of 33%, to produce a silicon to silicon optically coupled system that demonstrates 0.18% coupling quantum efficiency. The crystalline silicon LED demonstrates similarly high performance at very low power levels, where it has even higher power efficiency than a high efficiency GaAlAs LED.
Eu(DBM)3phen-doped poly(methyl methacryate) (PMMA) with different doping concentration were prepared. The highest doping concentration sample (10000 ppm) was examined by near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with a resolution of 50 nm; and the result showed that there were no aggregates larger than 50 nm in the doped polymer. This result was further confirmed by optical properties of the doping material. Concentration quenching was not detected by metastable-state lifetime measurements, indicating that no aggregates existed. According to the fluorescence spectra analysis, the relative intensity ratio (R) of 5D0→7F2 to 5D0→7F1 transition was not shown to be significantly changed with the increasing of Eu3+ content. The analysis reflected that the local structure and asymmetry in the vicinity of europium ions were not changed, and that the Eu3+ ions in PMMA were homogeneously dispersed.
Solidification of FeSi2 alloy by single-roller rapid solidification technology was studied, and monophase α–FeSi2 ribbons were obtained. Phase evolution of the monophase and metastable α–FeSi2 ribbons during subsequent annealing was studied with in situ electric resistance measurements. The results show that the metastable α–FeSi2 phase transforms into the β–FeSi2 phase at about 620 °C and then transforms into the α–FeSi2 phase again at a higher temperature when heated. A new relatively simple method to prepare bulk β–FeSi2 alloy, that is, formation of bulk β–FeSi2 alloy by annealing monophase α–FeSi2 alloy, is presented.
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