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This in situ transmission electron microscopy work presents a nanoscale characterization of the microstructural evolution in 3D-printed Inconel 718 (IN718) while exposed to elevated temperature and an associated change in the mechanical property under tensile loading. Here, we utilized a specially designed specimen shape that enables tensile testing of nano-sized thin films without off-plane deformations. Additionally, it allows a seamless transition from the in situ heating to tensile experiment using the same specimen, which enables a direct correlation of the microstructure and the mechanical property of the sample. The method was successfully used to observe the residual stress relaxation and the formation of incoherent γ′ precipitates when temperature was increased to 700°C. The subsequent in situ tensile test revealed that the exposure of the as-printed IN718 to a high temperature without full heat treatment (solutionizing and double aging) leads to loss of ductility.
Neuroimaging characteristics have demonstrated disrupted functional organization in schizophrenia (SZ), involving large-scale networks within grey matter (GM). However, previous studies have ignored the role of white matter (WM) in supporting brain function.
Using resting-state functional MRI and graph theoretical approaches, we investigated global topological disruptions of large-scale WM and GM networks in 93 SZ patients and 122 controls. Six global properties [clustering coefficient (Cp), shortest path length (Lp), local efficiency (Eloc), small-worldness (σ), hierarchy (β) and synchronization (S) and three nodal metrics [nodal degree (Knodal), nodal efficiency (Enodal) and nodal betweenness (Bnodal)] were utilized to quantify the topological organization in both WM and GM networks.
At the network level, both WM and GM networks exhibited reductions in Eloc, Cp and S in SZ. The SZ group showed reduced σ and β only for the WM network. Furthermore, the Cp, Eloc and S of the WM network were negatively correlated with negative symptoms in SZ. At the nodal level, the SZ showed nodal disturbances in the corpus callosum, optic radiation, posterior corona radiata and tempo-occipital WM tracts. For GM, the SZ manifested increased nodal centralities in frontoparietal regions and decreased nodal centralities in temporal regions.
These findings provide the first evidence for abnormal global topological properties in SZ from the perspective of a substantial whole brain, including GM and WM. Nodal centralities enhance GM areas, along with a reduction in adjacent WM, suggest that WM functional alterations may be compensated for adjacent GM impairments in SZ.
In this paper, the microstructure and the shear property of Cu/In–45Cu/Ni solder joints by transient liquid phase were studied, and the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) growth mechanism was investigated. The results showed that the IMCs volume ratio of solder joints was increased firstly and then decreased with increasing bonding time, and the IMCs volume ratio reached its maximum value of 95.8% at 60 min. The Cu interfacial IMC of the solder joint with dense microstructure was Cu2In phase at 60 min, and the Ni interfacial IMC was Ni3In7. The maximum shear strength of solder joints was obtained at 60 min, which is 15.21 MPa. The shear fracture appeared honeycomb structure, and the fracture occurred at the phase interface of Ni3In7/Cu11In9. The thickness of the interfacial IMCs and the white IMCs around the Cu particles (Cu@IMC) was increased continuously with increasing bonding time, and thus, the interconnection of Cu–Ni substrates was realized ultimately.
In the current research, a 60-day experiment was conducted with the purpose of exploring the impacts of methionine on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis as well as related signaling pathway. Six diets (iso-nitrogenous) differing in methionine concentrations (2.54, 4.85, 7.43, 10.12, 12.40 and 15.11 g kg-1 diets) were fed to 540 grass carp (178.47 ± 0.36 g). Results showed (P < 0.05) that, compared with methionine deficiency, optimal level of dietary methionine (1) increased feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR) and percentage weight gain (PWG); (2) increased fish muscle protein, lipid and free amino acid contents, and improved fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as increased protein content in part associated with TORC1/S6K1 signaling pathway; (3) increased the frequency distribution of muscle fibre with >50 µm of diameter; (4) increased type I collagen synthesis partly related to TGF-β1/Smads and CK2/TORC1 signaling pathways. In conclusion, dietary methionine improved muscle growth, which might be due to the regulation of muscle nutritive deposition, and muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis related signal molecules. Finally, according to PWG and muscle collagen content, the methionine requirements for on-growing grass carp (178-626 g) were estimated to be 9.56 g kg-1 diet (33.26 g kg-1 protein of diet) and 9.28 g kg-1 diet (32.29 g kg-1 of dietary protein), respectively.
The present study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis DSM 29784 (Ba) and enzymes (xylanase and β-glucanases; Enz), alone or in combination (BE) as antibiotic replacements, on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune response and the intestinal barrier of broiler chickens. In total, 1200 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each with six replicate pens of forty birds for 63 d as follows: (a) basal diet (control), supplemented with (b) 1 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu)/kg Ba, (c) 300 mg/kg Enz, (d) 1 × 109 cfu/kg Ba and 300 mg/kg Enz and (e) 250 mg/kg enramycin (ER). Ba, Enz and BE, similar to ER, decreased the feed conversion rate, maintained intestinal integrity with a higher villus height:crypt depth ratio and increased the numbers of goblet cells. The BE group exhibited higher expression of claudin-1 and mucin 2 than the other four groups. BE supplementation significantly increased the α-diversity and β-diversity of the intestinal microbiota and markedly enhanced lipase activity in the duodenal mucosa. Serum endotoxin was significantly decreased in the BE group. Compared with those in the control group, increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the jejunal mucosa of the Ba and BE groups, respectively. In conclusion, the results suggested that dietary treatment with Ba, Enz or BE has beneficial effects on growth performance and anti-oxidative capacity, and BE had better effects than Ba or Enz alone on digestive enzyme activity and the intestinal microbiota. Ba or Enz could be used as an alternative to antibiotics for broiler chickens.
Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the most serious food-borne parasites, which can lead to liver fibrosis or cholangiocarcinoma. Effective measures for clonorchiasis prevention are still urgently needed. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is an effective antigen delivery platform for oral vaccines. Chonorchis sinensis serpin (CsSerpin) was proved to be potential vaccine candidates. In this study, CsSerpin3 was displayed on the surface of B. subtilis spore and recombinant spores were orally administrated to BALB/C mice. CsSerpin3-specific IgA levels in faecal, bile and intestinal mucous increased at 4–8 weeks after the first administration compared with those in control groups. The mucus production and the number of goblet cells in intestinal mucosa elevated in B.s-CotC-CsSerpin3 (CotC, coat protein of B. subtilis spore) spores treated group compared to those in blank control. No significant difference in the activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase/ alanine aminotransferase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase were observed between groups. There was no side effect inflammation and observable pathological damage in the liver tissue of mice after administration. Moreover, collagen deposition and Ishak score were statistically reduced in B.s-CotC-CsSerpin3 spores treated mice. In conclusion, B. subtilis spores displaying CsSerpin3 could be investigated further as an oral vaccine against clonorchiasis.
The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been considered a predictor of clinical outcomes for bacteremia. This retrospective study aimed to determine the clinical value of TTP for the prognostic assessment of patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. A total of 167 adult patients with E.coli bacteremia identified over a 22-month period in a 3500-bed university teaching hospital in China were studied. The standard cut-off TTP was 11 h in the patient cohort. The septic shock occurred in 27.9% of patients with early TTP (⩽11 h) and in 7.1% of those with a prolonged TTP (>11 h) (P = 0.003). The mortality rate was significantly higher for patients in the early than in the late group (17.7% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that an early TTP (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.70–11.93), intensive care unit admission (OR 8.39, 95% CI 2.01–35.14) and neutropenia (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.55–11.40) were independently associated with septic shock. Likewise, the independent risk factors for mortality of patients were an early TTP (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.04–12.90), intensive care unit admission (OR 6.45; 95% CI 1.14–36.53), a Pittsburgh bacteremia score ⩾2 (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.22–15.47) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index ⩾3 (OR 11.29, 95% CI 2.81–45.39). Overall, a TTP for blood cultures within 11 h appears to be associated with worse outcomes for patients with E.coli bacteremia.
In this research communication, a cell model with elevated β-CASEIN synthesis was established by stimulating bovine mammary epithelial cells with 0.6 mM methionine, and the genome-wide gene expression profiles of methionine-stimulated cells and untreated cells were investigated by RNA sequencing. A total of 458 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 219 upregulated and 239 downregulated) were identified between the two groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the two highest-ranked GO terms in ‘molecular function’ category were ‘binding’ and ‘catalytic activity’, suggesting that milk protein synthesis in methionine-stimulated cells requires induction of gene expression to increase metabolic activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that within the ‘environmental information processing’ category, the subcategory that is most highly enriched for DEGs was ‘signal transduction’. cGMP-PKG, Rap1, calcium, cAMP, PI3K-AKT, MAPK, and JAK-STAT are the pathways with the highest number of DEGs, suggesting that these signaling pathways have potential roles in mediating methionine-induced milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. This study provides valuable insights into the physiological and metabolic adaptations in cells stimulated with methionine. Understanding the regulation of this transition is essential for effective intervention in the lactation process.
To explore the feature of functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN), central-executive network(CEN), and salience network (SN) in patients with schizophrenia during a resting state by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
The SPM8, DPARSFA, conn, REST softwares combined with data-driven region of interest analysis were used to compare the functional connectivity (FC) of the DMN, CEN, and SN in 74 patients with schizophrenia(SZ) and 79 age- and gender-matched normal controls(NC). Medial prefrontal cortex(MPFC)was selected as seed region for identifying DMN and CEN; right anterior insula(rAI) for SN.
Compared with NC, SZ showed increased FC with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(DLPFC) and bilateral putamen of the MPFC, and increased FC with left middle frontal cortex and precuneus/ posterior cingulate cortex(Pcu/PCC) of the rAI. SZ also showed enhanced interconnectivity strengths of CEN-DMN, CEN-SN, and DMN-SN(p>0.05). Correlation analyses showed that the increased FC between MPFC and left DLPFC significantly negatively correlated with PANSS-negative symptoms(r=-0.224,p=0.030) and increased FC between rAI and Pcu/PCC significantly correlated with PANSS-positve symptoms (r=0.243,p=0.020).
This study provides evidence for resting state functional abnormalities of DMN, CEN, and SN in schizophrenia patients. These aberrant functional connectivities in some key brain regions of the three network could be responsible for the schizophrenic symptoms.
Planning ability as a critical component of executive function has been used to investigate prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in Schizophrenia patients by several neuroimaging studies. However, the changes of PFC activation after effective antipsychotic treatment are still unclear.
The aim of this study is to explore whether there is any variation in the prefrontal hemodynamic response during Tower of London test after 6 weeks’ antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia patients, and the relationship between the changes in PFC activation and some demographic factors as well as the severity of the patients’ psychiatric symptoms.
40 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were recruited for the present study. 28-channel NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) was used to measure changes in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal cortical surface area during Tower of London (TOL) test—a classic neuropsychological test for planning abilities. The patients were examined before treatment and after six weeks’ treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medicines.
After the short-term treatment, the patients’ TOL test performance and the activations in PFC during the task period did not differ from baseline (P>0.05), although the psychiatric symptoms of the patients were improved significantly(positive subscale score 18.25±2.86 & 12.75±2.60; general psychopathology 33.67±3.65 & 27.00±3.67; PANSS total score 72.25±7.07 & 55.42±7.53; P<0.001).
It suggests that the impairment of cognitive function and the function of the PFC of schizophrenia patients would not be improved with the improvement of psychiatric symptoms, as further support the hypothesis that PFC damage is a durable impairment for schizophrenia.
The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the Uric acid (UA) Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 1685 participants were included in the present study. The main outcome was new-onset hyperuricaemia defined as a UA concentration ≥417 μmol/l in men or ≥357 μmol/l in women. The secondary outcome was a change in UA concentration defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. During a median follow-up duration of 4·3 years, new-onset hyperuricaemia occurred in 290 (17·2 %) participants. There was a significantly inverse relation of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (per sd increment; OR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·99) and change in UA levels (per sd increment; β −3·96 μmol/l; 95 % CI −7·14, −0·79). Consistently, when plasma Mg was analysed as tertiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) and less increase in UA levels (β −8·35 μmol/l; 95 % CI −16·12, −0·58) were found among participants in tertile 3 (≥885·5 μmol/l) compared with those in tertile 1 (<818·9 μmol/l). Similar trends were found in males and females. Higher plasma Mg levels were associated with a decreased risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia in hypertensive adults.
Bloodstream infection (BSI), caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, is associated with high morbidity and mortality, where the pks gene cluster plays a major role in their occurrence and prevalence. Information on the prevalence and characteristics of this gene cluster in K. pneumoniae is currently limited in mainland China. We therefore undertook a multicentre longitudinal study which revealed the prevalence, overall, community-onset and hospital-acquired BSI to be 20.5%, 28.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Compared to pks-negative, pks-positive isolates were significantly more susceptible to antimicrobial agents with a low incidence (5.1%) of multidrug-resistance and with infrequent extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production. Among pks-positive isolates, ST23 (78/117) and ST65 (20/117) were the dominant sequence types, and the majority harboured virulence genes. Community-onset BSI patients infected with pks-positive isolates had a higher proportion of liver abscesses and a lower proportion of biliary obstructions (P < 0.05). The pks-positive isolates were mostly sporadic in the phylogenetic tree, with a 65.8 and 47.0 average allele difference between Clade 1 and Clade 2, respectively. We concluded that although pks-positive K. pneumoniae were generally susceptible to antimicrobials, the high prevalence of such isolates in community cases and the genotoxicity, merits further investigation.
The aim of this research was to identify variation in the yak lipin-1 gene (LPIN1) and determine whether this variation affects milk traits. PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to detect variation in the 5′ untranslated region of LPIN1 in 500 yaks from four populations: Tianzhu white yaks, Qinghai yaks, wild × domestic-cross yaks and Gannan yaks. Four unique PCR-SSCP patterns, representing four different DNA sequence variants (named A, B, C and D), were observed. These contained six single nucleotide polymorphisms. Female Gannan yaks with BC genotype produced milk with a higher fat content (P < 0.001) and total milk solids (P < 0.001), than those with the AA, AB and BB genotypes. These results would suggest that LPIN1 is having an effect on yak milk fat synthesis.
Secrecy involves the active concealment of information from others, which can cause undesirable consequences for cognitive, perceptual and health psychology, but empirical research linking secrecy to charitable behaviors remains relatively scarce. This research examined whether secrecy weakens people’s desire to engage in charitable behaviors. Two experiments demonstrated that as a mental burden, secrets decreased people’s donation desire, including their intentions to volunteer and donate, and their tangible charitable behavior. In Experiment 1, recalling a personal secret increased the tendency to donate less money than recalling a neutral experience. Study 2 showed that this weakening effect of secrecy on charitable behaviors is mediated by fatigue (but not negative affect).
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
Autonomous ships are gaining in importance and are expected to shape the future of the global shipping industry. This evolutionary shift raises serious issues about compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs). This paper reviews the literature on autonomous ships from the perspective of the obligations of good seamanship imposed by COLREGs. The authors conclude that to facilitate the introduction of autonomous ships, the application barriers presented by COLREGs need to be analysed. With this goal, this paper presents a perspective from navigational practice. Four nautical scientists and two deck officers were invited to give their opinions. The analysis indicates that COLREGs require further elaboration and amendments to eliminate uncertainty of interpretation. In particular, the paper highlights the need to amend the ‘look-out’ rule (COLREGs Rule 5) to permit look-out by ‘computer vision’ alone while, at the same time, preserving the distinction between vessels navigating in restricted visibility and in sight of one another.
Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) is one of the most troublesome weeds in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and corn (Zea mays L.) fields in northeast China. In 2017, a C. album population that survived imazethapyr at the recommended field rate was collected from a soybean field in Heilongjiang Province in China. Experiments were conducted to determine the basis of resistance to imazethapyr and investigate the herbicide-resistance pattern in C. album. Dose–response tests showed that the resistant population (R) displayed high resistance to imazethapyr (20-fold) compared with the susceptible population (S). An in vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity assay indicated that the ALS of the R population was resistant to imazethapyr compared with the ALS of the S population. Sequence analysis of the ALS gene revealed that the GCA was replaced by ACA at amino acid position 122, which resulted in an alanine to threonine substitution (Ala-122-Thr) in the R population. The R population displayed cross-resistance to thifensulfuron-methyl and flumetsulam but susceptibility to bispyribac-sodium, flucarbazone, glyphosate, mesotrione, and fomesafen. These results confirmed that the basis of imazethapyr resistance in C. album was conferred by the Ala-122-Thr substitution in the ALS enzyme. This is the first report of the target-site basis of ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance in C. album.