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Adolescence is a pivotal stage vulnerable to mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. Although self-acceptance and social comparison are known to affect adolescent mental health, their interactive and moderating roles are not fully understood.
To explore the role of self-acceptance, social comparison and attributional style in predicting these mental health outcomes among adolescents in clinical settings.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 242 adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing self-acceptance, social comparison, attributional style and mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety). Mediation models and multi-group analysis were used to examine the relationships among these variables.
Our findings demonstrated a significant relationship between self-acceptance, social comparison, depression and anxiety (rs = 0.32–0.88). Specifically, lower self-acceptance and higher social comparison were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Additionally, individuals with external attributional tendencies reported higher depression (Cohen's d = 0.61) and anxiety (d = 0.58) compared with those with internal tendencies. Mediation modelling showed that social comparison is a mediator between self-acceptance and depression (effect size −0.04, 95% CI −0.08 to −0.01) and anxiety (effect size −0.06, 95% CI −0.10 to −0.02). Crucially, multi-group analysis showed that the impact of social comparison on mental health outcomes varied significantly based on attributional style.
These findings underscore the importance of considering self-acceptance, social comparison and attributional style in understanding and addressing mental health challenges during adolescence. This could inform the development of targeted interventions to promote mental health and well-being among adolescents. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings in diverse populations and to explore the underlying mechanisms in greater detail.
Students’ attention deficit has a negative impact on their learning and development. In traditional teaching environments, students with attention deficit often face problems such as difficulty concentrating, distraction, difficulty maintaining sustained attention, and controlling attention. At the same time, teaching reform has become a focus of attention in the education industry, aiming to improve students’ learning outcomes and cultivate comprehensive development abilities.
Subjects and Methods
The study adopts an experimental group and a control group design. The experimental group received teaching reform measures, including improving teaching methods, increasing interaction and cooperative learning, etc; The control group continued to use traditional teaching methods. The study collected data on students’ attention deficit scores and academic performance, and used SPSS 22.0 statistical software for data processing and analysis to compare the differences between the experimental group and the control group.
The attention deficit score of the experimental group students was significantly reduced, and the SPSS22.0 statistical method verified that the difference between the experimental group and the control group was statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, the academic performance of the experimental group students has also significantly improved, such as improving exam scores and increasing interest in learning.
The research results indicate that teaching reform has a positive impact on students’ attention deficit. Improving teaching methods and increasing interaction and collaborative learning can help improve students’ concentration and attention regulation abilities.
Key Education Reform Project of Hainan Provincial Department of Education (No. Hnjg2022ZD-4220); High-level Talents Project of Hainan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 621RC602); Major Special Project of Sanya University (No. USY22XK-04); Key Research and Development Project of Hainan Province (No. ZDYF2023GXJS007); School-level Project of Sanya University (No. USYYB22-07).
The third-order law links energy transfer rates in the inertial range of magneto- hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with third-order structure functions. Anisotropy, a typical property in the solar wind, challenges the applicability of the third-order law with the isotropic assumption. To shed light on the energy transfer process in the presence of anisotropy, we conducted direct numerical simulations of forced MHD turbulence with normal and hyper-viscosity under various strengths of the external magnetic field ($B_0$), and calculated three forms of third-order structure function with or without averaging of the azimuthal or polar angles with respect to $B_0$ direction. Correspondingly, three estimated energy transfer rates were obtained. The result shows that the peak of normalized third-order structure function occurs at larger scales closer to the $B_0$ direction, and the maximum of longitudinal transfer rates shifts away from the $B_0$ direction at larger $B_0$. Compared with normal viscous cases, hyper-viscous cases can attain better separated inertial range, thus facilitating the estimation of the energy cascade rates. We find that the widespread use of the isotropic form of the third-order law in estimating the energy transfer rates is questionable in some cases, especially when the anisotropy arising from the mean magnetic field is inevitable. In contrast, the direction-averaged third-order structure function properly accounts for the effect of anisotropy and predicts the energy transfer rates and inertial range accurately, even at very high $B_0$. With limited statistics, the third-order structure function shows a stronger dependence on averaging of azimuthal angles than the time, especially for high $B_0$ cases. These findings provide insights into the anisotropic effect on the estimation of energy transfer rates.
The sediments of closed-basin lakes on the margin of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are valuable archives of past changes in hydroclimate and dust activity and thus potentially can help us to understand future climate changes. We present high-resolution, well-dated records of the grain size and carbonate mineralogy from Lake Bayanchagan, northern China, spanning the last 11.5 ka. Grain-size endmember (EM) analysis distinguished four EMs, each linked to different sediment transport processes. EM1 (0.4–0.6 μm) and EM3 (14–102 μm) reflect the strength of regional dust activity, whereas EM2 (1.3–31 μm) represents variations in local hydrodynamic conditions related to lake-level changes and EM4 (68–500 μm) is associated with local dust activity. Our results show that a high lake level and weakened dust activity occurred during 10–5.8 ka, as indicated by increased EM2 and decreased EM3, respectively. After 5.8 ka, EM2 decreased as the three other EMs increased, and dolomite appeared in the sediments while calcite decreased—indicating both a decline in lake level and strengthened dust activity. The fluctuations in lake level and dust activity are in good agreement with precipitation variations reconstructed from other records, which are in turn correlated to movement of the EASM rainfall belt, in response to temperature changes.
Polymers maintain colloidal stability by adsorbing onto the surface of sepiolite particles, and changes in temperature and salinity can affect this process. We chose three typical polymers to investigate their interactions with sepiolite under high-salinity (15 wt.% NaCl) conditions at >180°C. Sepiolite samples were characterized using infrared testing, X-ray diffraction testing, contact angle testing, thermogravimetric testing, filtration loss testing and rheological testing. The experimental results showed that the desorption of the polymers under high-temperature and high-salinity conditions reduces the stability and filtration control of the suspension significantly. Adding polymers to sepiolite suspensions can maintain good stability even after thermal ageing at 240°C. In terms of drilling fluid regulation, sepiolite can play a role in regulating rheological properties, and the interactions between various polymers and sepiolite can be utilized to maintain the stable colloidal state of the drilling fluid. Studying the adsorption behaviour of various types of polymers on the surface of sepiolite under high-temperature and high-salinity conditions has important implications for the design and selection of sepiolite drilling fluid treatment agents.
The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
Childhood is a crucial neurodevelopmental period. We investigated whether childhood reading for pleasure (RfP) was related to young adolescent assessments of cognition, mental health, and brain structure.
We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal study in a large-scale US national cohort (10 000 + young adolescents), using the well-established linear mixed model and structural equation methods for twin study, longitudinal and mediation analyses. A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis for potential causal inference was also performed. Important factors including socio-economic status were controlled.
Early-initiated long-standing childhood RfP (early RfP) was highly positively correlated with performance on cognitive tests and significantly negatively correlated with mental health problem scores of young adolescents. These participants with higher early RfP scores exhibited moderately larger total brain cortical areas and volumes, with increased regions including the temporal, frontal, insula, supramarginal; left angular, para-hippocampal; right middle-occipital, anterior-cingulate, orbital areas; and subcortical ventral-diencephalon and thalamus. These brain structures were significantly related to their cognitive and mental health scores, and displayed significant mediation effects. Early RfP was longitudinally associated with higher crystallized cognition and lower attention symptoms at follow-up. Approximately 12 h/week of youth regular RfP was cognitively optimal. We further observed a moderately significant heritability of early RfP, with considerable contribution from environments. MR analysis revealed beneficial causal associations of early RfP with adult cognitive performance and left superior temporal structure.
These findings, for the first time, revealed the important relationships of early RfP with subsequent brain and cognitive development and mental well-being.
Preterm birth is a global health problem and associated with increased risk of long-term developmental impairments, but findings on the adverse outcomes of prematurity have been inconsistent.
Data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We identified 1706 preterm children and 1865 matched individuals as Control group and compared brain structure (MRI data), cognitive function and mental health symptoms.
Results showed that preterm children had higher psychopathological risk and lower cognitive function scores compared to controls. Structural MRI analysis indicated that preterm children had higher cortical thickness in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal and occipital gyrus; smaller volumes in the temporal and parietal gyrus, cerebellum, insula and thalamus; and smaller fiber tract volumes in the fornix and parahippocampal-cingulum bundle. Partial correlation analyses showed that gestational age and birth weight were associated with ADHD symptoms, picvocab, flanker, reading, fluid cognition composite, crystallized cognition composite and total cognition composite scores, and measures of brain structure in regions involved with emotional regulation, attention and cognition.
These findings suggest a complex interplay between psychopathological risk and cognitive deficits in preterm children that is associated with changes in regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and structural connectivity among cortical and limbic brain regions critical for cognition and emotional well-being.
Previous observational studies have reported potential associations among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, and diabetes (including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T1DM/T2DM]). However, whether the association between ADHD and diabetes is mediated by obesity is unknown.
With two-sample Mendelian randomization, we analysed the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM and T2DM and six obesity-related traits [including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage and basal metabolic rate] and the causal effect of these obesity-related traits on T1DM/T2DM. Finally, with multivariable Mendelian randomization, we explored and quantified the possible mediation effects of obesity-related traits on the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM/T2DM.
Our results showed that ADHD increased the risk of T2DM by 14% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.140, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.005–1.293] but with no evidence of an effect on T1DM (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.735–1.141, P = 0.433.). In addition, ADHD had a 6.1% increased causal effect on high WC (OR = 1.061, 95% CI = 1.024–1.099, P = 0.001) and an 8.2% increased causal effect on high WHR (OR = 1.082, 95% CI = 1.035–1.131, P = 0.001). In addition, a causal effect of genetically predicted high WC (OR = 1.870, 95% CI = 1.594–2.192, P < 0.001) on a higher risk of T2DM was found. In further analysis, WC mediated approximately 26.75% (95% CI = 24.20%–29.30%) of the causal association between ADHD and T2DM.
WC mediates a substantial proportion of the causal effect of ADHD on the risk of T2DM, which indicated that the risk of T2DM induced by ADHD could be indirectly reduced by controlling WC as a main risk factor.
We study the arithmeticity of
-Fuchsian subgroups of some nonarithmetic lattices constructed by Deraux et al. [‘New non-arithmetic complex hyperbolic lattices’, Invent. Math.203 (2016), 681–771]. Our results give an answer to a question raised by Wells [Hybrid Subgroups of Complex Hyperbolic Isometries, Doctoral thesis, Arizona State University, 2019].
The association between time-restricted eating (TRE) and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is less studied. Moreover, whether the association is independent of physical exercise or diet quality or quantity is uncertain. In this nationwide cross-sectional study of 3813 participants, the timing of food intakes was recorded by 24-h recalls; NAFLD was defined through vibration-controlled transient elastography in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using logistic regression. Participants with daily eating window of ≤ 8 h had lower odds of NAFLD (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI: 0·52, 0·93), compared with those with ≥ 10 h window. Early (05.00–15.00) and late TRE (11.00–21.00) showed inverse associations with NAFLD prevalence without statistical heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0·649) with OR of 0·73 (95 % CI: 0·36, 1·47) and 0·61 (95 % CI: 0·44, 0·84), respectively. Such inverse association seemed stronger in participants with lower energy intake (OR = 0·58, 95 % CI: 0·38, 0·89, Pinteraction = 0·020). There are no statistical differences in the TRE-NAFLD associations according to physical activity (Pinteraction = 0·390) or diet quality (Pinteraction = 0·110). TRE might be associated with lower likelihood of NAFLD. Such inverse association is independent of physical activity and diet quality and appears stronger in individuals consuming lower energy. Given the potential misclassification of TRE based on one- or two-day recall in the analysis, epidemiological studies with validated methods for measuring the habitual timing of dietary intake are warranted.
The phase summation effect in sum-frequency mixing process is utilized to avoid a nonlinearity obstacle in the power scaling of single-frequency visible or ultraviolet lasers. Two single-frequency fundamental lasers are spectrally broadened by phase modulation to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifier and achieve higher power. After sum-frequency mixing in a nonlinear optical crystal, the upconverted laser returns to single frequency due to phase summation, when the phase modulations on two fundamental lasers have a similar amplitude but opposite sign. The method was experimentally proved in a Raman fiber amplifier-based laser system, which generated a power-scalable sideband-free single-frequency 590 nm laser. The proposal manifests the importance of phase operation in wave-mixing processes for precision laser technology.
A single-shot measurement of electron emittance was experimentally accomplished using a focused transfer line with a dipole. The betatron phase of electrons based on laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is energy dependent owing to the coupling of the longitudinal acceleration field and the transverse focusing (defocusing) field in the bubble. The phase space presents slice information after phase compensation relative to the center energy. Fitting the transverse size of the electron beam at different energy slices in the energy spectrum measured 0.27 mm mrad in the experiment. The diagnosis of slice emittance facilitates local electron quality manipulation, which is important for the development of LWFA-based free electron lasers. The quasi-3D particle-in-cell simulations matched the experimental results and analysis well.
In recent years, the incidence of teratospermia has been increasing, and it has become a very important factor leading to male infertility. The research on the molecular mechanism of teratospermia is also progressing rapidly. This article briefly summarizes the clinical incidence of teratozoospermia, and makes a retrospective summary of related studies reported in recent years. Specifically discussing the relationship between gene status and spermatozoa, the review aims to provide the basis for the genetic diagnosis and gene therapy of teratozoospermia.
High-power continuous-wave single-frequency Er-doped fiber amplifiers at 1560 nm by in-band and core pumping of a 1480 nm Raman fiber laser are investigated in detail. Both co- and counter-pumping configurations are studied experimentally. Up to 59.1 W output and 90% efficiency were obtained in the fundamental mode and linear polarization in the co-pumped case, while less power and efficiency were achieved in the counter-pumped setup for additional loss. The amplifier performs indistinguishably in terms of laser linewidth and relative intensity noise in the frequency range up to 10 MHz for both configurations. However, the spectral pedestal is raised in co-pumping, caused by cross-phase modulation between the pump and signal laser, which is observed and analyzed for the first time. Nevertheless, the spectral pedestal is 34.9 dB below the peak, which has a negligible effect for most applications.
We propose a 2.1 μm high-energy dissipative soliton resonant (DSR) fiber laser system based on a mode-locked seed laser and dual-stage amplifiers. In the seed laser, the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror technique is employed to realize mode-locking. The utilization of an in-band pump scheme and long gain fiber enables effectively exciting 2.1 μm pulses. A section of ultra-high numerical aperture fiber (UHNAF) with normal dispersion and high nonlinearity and an output coupler with a large coupling ratio are used to achieve a high-energy DSR system. By optimizing the UHNAF length to 55 m, a 2103.7 nm, 88.1 nJ DSR laser with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 0.48 nm and a pulse width of 17.1 ns is obtained under a proper intracavity polarization state and pump power. The output power and conversion efficiency are 0.233 W and 4.57%, respectively, both an order of magnitude higher than those of previously reported holmium-doped DSR seed lasers. Thanks to the high output power and nanosecond pulse width of the seed laser, the average power of the DSR laser is linearly scaled up to 50.4 W via a dual-stage master oscillator power amplifier system. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth broadens slightly to 0.52 nm, and no distortion occurs in the amplified pulse waveform. The corresponding pulse energy reaches 19.1 μJ, which is the highest pulse energy in a holmium-doped mode-locked fiber laser system to the best of our knowledge. Such a 2.1 μm, high-energy DSR laser with relatively wide pulse width has prospective applications in mid-infrared nonlinear frequency conversion.
The objective of this paper is to present the movement mechanisms of transport aircraft response to severe clear-air turbulence to obtain the loss of control prevention for pilot training in IATA – Loss of Control In-flight (LOC-I) program. The transport aircraft in transonic flight is subjected to severe clear-air turbulence, resulting in a sudden plunging motion with the abrupt change in flight attitude and gravitational acceleration. The comparative analyses of the flight environment and aircraft response to severe clear-air turbulence for two four-jet aircraft are studied. The one with a larger dropped-off altitude during the plunging motion will be chosen to construct the movement mechanism. The nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic model of the chosen transport is established through flight data mining and the fuzzy-logic modeling of artificial intelligence technique based on post-flight data. The crosswind before the turbulence encounter will easily induce a rolling motion and then the sudden plunging motion during the turbulence encounter. The influences of the varying vertical wind and crosswind on loss of control are presented. To formulate preventive actions, the situation awareness of varying crosswind encountering for the operational pilot will be studied further in the future. The present study is initiated to examine the possible mitigation concepts of accident prevention for the pilot training course of IATA – Loss of Control In-flight (LOC-I) program.
This research communication investigated the role and the underlying mechanism of sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT6) in acetate-induced mTORC1 signaling activation and milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. The data showed AGPAT6 knockdown significantly decreased acetate-induced phosphorylation of mTORC1 signaling molecules and intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content, whereas this inhibition effect was reversed after the addition of 16:0,18:1 phosphatidic acid (PA), suggesting that AGPAT6 could generate PA in response to acetate simulation, that in turn activates mTORC1 signaling. PPARγ is the upstream regulator of AGPAT6 upon acetate stimulation. Luciferase assay with clones containing various deletions and mutation in AGPAT6 promoter showed that there is a RXRα binding sequence located at −96 bp of AGPAT6 promoter. Acetate stimulation significantly increased the interaction between PPARγ and AGPAT6 via this RXRα binding site. Taken together, our data indicated that AGPAT6 could activate mTORC1 signaling by producing PA during acetate-induced milk fat synthesis, and PPARγ acts as a transcription factor to mediate the effect of acetate on AGPAT6 via RXRα.