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This study investigated the effects of Porphyra yezoensis enzyme degradation extract (PYEDE) on the brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases due to oxidative stress. We used in vitro antioxidant systems to verify the antioxidant potential of PYEDE. The results indicated that PYEDE alleviated weight loss and organ atrophy, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, and elevated glutathione (GSH) content in the serum and brains of the D-gal-induced aging model mice. PYEDE also renewed the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total anti-oxidant capability (T-AOC) activities, downregulated the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) levels, normalized the hippocampal neurons, and modulated multiple neurotransmitter systems by inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the upregulation of acetylcholine (Ach), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels. Overall, PYEDE is a promising supplement for the alleviation of oxidative stress and age-associated brain diseases.
The jungles of Linyun and Longlin Autonomous Prefecture, located in the heart of the southwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, are home to the oldest tea trees (Camellia sinensis) in the world. In the absence of regular annual rings, radiocarbon (14C) dating is one of the most powerful tools that can assist in the determination of the ages and growth rates of these plants. In this work, cores were extracted from large ancient tea trees in a central Longlin rain forest; extraction of carbon was performed with an automated sample preparation system. The 14C levels in the tree cores were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Tsukuba. These measurements indicated that contrary to conventional views, the ages of trees in these forests range up to ~700 years, and the growth rate of this species is notably slow, exhibiting a long-term radial growth rate of 0.039±0.006 cm/yr. It was demonstrated that 14C analyses provide accurate determination of ages and growth rates for subtropical wild tea trees.
Radiocarbon (14C) has become a unique and powerful tracer in source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particles. In this study, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) held in Beijing in 2014 was used as a demonstration to research the source apportionment of atmosphere PM2.5. We used a 200 kV single stage accelerator mass spectrometer recently completed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PM2.5 samples related to above case were collected, and the characteristics of radiocarbon in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in samples were analyzed using the AMS. The results show that the Before-APEC pollution emission mode is different from the During-APEC and After-APEC pollution emission modes. For Before-APEC, During-APEC and After-APEC, the average values of fossil carbon fraction of OC are 0.463, 0.431 and 0.615, respectively, and those of EC are 0.644, 0.561 and 0.687. The fossil source contributions of traffic activities using fossil fuels to OC and EC are 15.8 % and 21.9 %, respectively. The fossil source contributions of industrial activities to OC and EC are 38.0 % and 8.2 %, respectively. It is about 7–10 days that is needed to take to regenerate the PM2.5 pollution caused by human activities.
Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death in China, and the incidence of ischemic stroke (240 per 100,000 people) is higher than that of hemorrhagic stroke (82 per 100,000 people). More than 80 percent of strokes can be prevented by early control of risk factors. Therefore, identifying and managing high-risk groups is a top priority in preventing stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is a key prediction tool for stratifying stroke risk in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) as follows: zero score is low risk; one is intermediate risk; and two is high risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system for stratifying ischemic stroke risk in the non-AF population.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in June 2018 for relevant diagnostic studies. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using the QUADAS-2 criteria) were performed independently by two authors. Methodological variation across the selected studies precluded meta-analysis, so the results were synthesized narratively.
Seven prospective studies involving 50,652 patients (6,760 with ischemic stroke) were included. The treatment threshold ranged from two to four across the studies. Three studies reported diagnostic accuracy at a threshold of two, with a sensitivity above 0.8 and a specificity ranging from 0.32 to 0.68. The diagnostic odds ratio was greater than two (seven studies). The two studies using a treatment threshold of four reported a sensitivity of 0.59 to 0.76 and a specificity of 0.43 to 0.69. One study used a threshold of three, with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.39.
The CHA2DS2-VASc score may be used to predict ischemic stroke in the non-atrial fibrillation population. Treatment thresholds greater than two provide more optimal diagnostic accuracy, although the predictive performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc score may be better in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not AF.
Multidimensional instabilities always develop with time during the process of radiation pressure acceleration, and are detrimental to the generation of monoenergetic proton beams. In this paper, a sharp-front laser is proposed to irradiate a triple-layer target (the proton layer is set between two carbon ion layers) and studied in theory and simulations. It is found that the thin proton layer can be accelerated once to hundreds of MeV with monoenergetic spectra only during the hole-boring (HB) stage. The carbon ions move behind the proton layer in the light-sail (LS) stage, which can shield any further interaction between the rear part of the laser and the proton layer. In this way, proton beam instabilities can be reduced to a certain extent during the entire acceleration process. It is hoped such a mechanism can provide a feasible way to improve the beam quality for proton therapy and other applications.
Detailed knowledge of dissociation behavior and dissociation products is necessary to understand the stability, sensitivity, and the reactive mechanism of explosives under laser initiation. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was utilized to detect the transient products of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) produced under 532 nm pulse laser ablation, the possible attribution of intermediate ion fragments were confirmed. The laser fluence threshold for detectable fragments is about 3.6 J/cm2. The peak intensities of main ions (CN, CNO/C2H4N, NO2, C2N2O, HCN, C2NH2, etc.) increase with the increasing of laser fluence, and reach the maximum at 11.5 J/cm2. Moreover, time-depend changes of ion intensity indicate that the type and degree of reactions are different in different periods. According to the molecular structure of FOX-7 and the intermediate ions, the laser-induced dissociation mechanisms were proposed to illustrate the cause of the fragments which might throw some light on the laser initiation of FOX-7.
The hot deformation behavior and processing characteristics of Mg–3Zn–0.3Ca–0.4La (wt%) alloys were investigated by hot compression deformation. The results suggested that deformation parameters had significant effects on deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization of the Mg–Zn–Ca–La alloy. The average activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 188.9 kJ/mol. The processing map was constructed and analyzed based on the dynamic material model, and the optimum hot working window of the alloy was determined to be the temperature of 350 °C and the strain rates between 0.001 and 0.01 s−1. Furthermore, the DRX kinetic model of the Mg–3Zn–0.3Ca–0.4La (wt%) alloy was established, which implied that incomplete dynamic recrystallization occurred for the Mg–Zn–Ca–La alloy in the present work. Microstructure analysis indicated that deformation parameters played a critical role on the microstructure optimization. The dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) region fraction and the DRXed grain size were increased with the increase of deformation temperature and decrease of deformation rates.
In this work, corrosion-resistant fluoridated Ca–Mg–P composite coatings were prepared on magnesium alloys via a hydrothermal assisted sol–gel process. All these coatings derived from Coating Sols with different F− concentrations are composed of fluoridated hydroxyapatite, magnesium hydroxide, and dittmarite. When F− concentration of Coating Sol is 0.03 M, the coating exhibited uniform and dense surface, and its thickness reached 32 μm, thus possessing a high charge transfer resistance of 312 ± 12.69 kΩ cm2 in simulated body fluid (SBF). Immersion test in SBF showed that this coating could quickly induce the formation of the mineralized layer, implying relatively high bioactivity. After 49 days of immersion, the original composite coating and newly formed mineralized layer reached 60 μm in thickness, providing effective long-term protection for magnesium alloys. These attractive results indicate that this fluoridated Ca–Mg–P composite coating is a promising protective coating on biodegradable magnesium and magnesium alloy implants for orthopaedic applications.
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
This paper examines China's optimal fiscal policy in a general equilibrium model, in which the government finances its budget through both a special instrument, an implicit tax on the residential land, and a typical conventional instrument, the value-added tax (VAT). By solving a Ramsey problem, we find that (i) the optimal policy suggests a much lower land tax rate than the existing rate in China, and (ii) a substantial part of debt stabilization should come through an adjustment in the VAT rate, instead of relying on land financing. Switching from the existing policy to the Ramsey policy generates significant welfare gains.
Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of maternal Fe intake with birth outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the associations between maternal Fe intake (total Fe from diet and supplements, dietary total Fe, haeme Fe, non-haeme Fe and Fe supplements use) and adverse birth outcomes in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. In all, 7375 women were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method at 0–12 months (median 3; 10th–90th percentile 0–7) after delivery. Diets were collected by a validated FFQ and maternal characteristics were obtained via a standard questionnaire. The highest tertile of haeme Fe intake compared with the lowest tertile was negatively associated with low birth weight (LBW) (OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·94), small for gestational age (SGA) (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·62, 0·94) and birth defects (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·32, 0·89). Maternal haeme Fe intake was associated with a lower risk of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) (medium tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·61, 0·95; highest tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·93; Ptrend=0·045). The OR of LBW associated with Fe supplements use were as follows: during pregnancy: 0·72 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·95); in the second trimester: 0·67 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·98); in the third trimester: 0·47 (95 % CI 0·24, 0·93). We observed no associations of total Fe, dietary total Fe or non-haeme Fe intake with birth outcomes. The results suggest that maternal haeme Fe intake is associated with a reduced risk of LBW, SGA, IUGR and birth defects, and Fe supplements use during pregnancy reduces LBW risk.
To describe nutrient intakes, characterize dietary patterns and analyse their associations with sociodemographic characteristics among pregnant women in Shaanxi, China.
Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Twenty counties and ten districts in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China, 2013.
Women (n 7462) were recruited using a stratified multistage random sampling method to report diets during pregnancy, at 0–12 months (median 3 months; 10th–90th percentile, 0–7 months) after delivery.
Pregnant women had higher intakes of fat, niacin and vitamin E than the nutrient reference values, while most micronutrients such as vitamin A, folate, Ca and Zn were reportedly low. Women in the highest education, occupation and household income groups had higher nutrient intakes than those in the lowest groups. Nutrient intake differences also existed by geographic area, residence and maternal age at delivery. Three dietary patterns were identified: balanced pattern, vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern. Participants with high balanced pattern scores tended to be better educated, wealthier, 25–29 years old at delivery, working outside and living in urban areas and central Shaanxi. Women with high scores on the vegetarian pattern and snacks pattern tended to be in low balanced pattern score groups, and had lower nutrient intakes than those in the high balanced pattern score groups.
The study suggested that pregnant women in Shaanxi, China had low intakes of most nutrients such as vitamin A, folate and Ca. Dietary patterns and most nutrient intakes varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Targeted programmes are needed to improve dietary intakes and dietary patterns among sociodemographically disadvantaged groups.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is suggested to be a complex polygenetic disorder with high heritability. Genome-wide association studies have found that the rs1635, rs11038167, and rs10489202 polymorphisms are associated with SZ in Han Chinese. However, results of validation studies are inconsistent. This study aimed to test the association between the NKAPL rs1635, TSPAN18 rs11038167, and MPC2 rs10489202 polymorphisms and SZ in a Chinese population.
This study contained 700 unrelated SZ patients (300 Zhuang and 400 Han) and 700 gender- and age-matched controls (300 Zhuang and 400 Han). The polymorphisms in TSPAN18 (rs11038167), NKAPL (rs1635), and MPC2 (rs10489202) were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. Statistical analyses were performed with PLINK program and SPSS l6.0 for Windows. STATA11.1 was used for meta-analysis.
No statistically significant difference was found in different allele and genotype frequencies of rs1635, rs11038167, and rs10489202 between SZ cases and controls of Zhuang and Han ethnicities and the total samples (all p>0.05). Further meta-analysis suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10489202 was significantly associated with SZ in a Han Chinese population (pOR=0.002).
Our case–control study failed to validate the significant association of NKAPL rs1635, TSPAN18 rs11038167, and MPC2 rs10489202 polymorphisms with SZ susceptibility in the southern Zhuang or Han Chinese population. However, meta-analysis showed a significant association between MPC2 variant rs10489202 and SZ susceptibility in Han Chinese.
Measurement bias and lack of terrain features often cause false peaks during underwater terrain matching positioning, that is, there is more than one peak near the real position. Previous methods to address this problem have increased the number of measurement beams, but this also increases the data processing time and energy consumption. At the same time, the ratio of measured information that is used does not increase. In other words, we should increase the ratio of measured information that is used, not simply increase the amount of information that is measured. Conventional matching algorithms only use the height of nodes without considering surface information, which is composed of height and the position of multiple nodes in three-dimensional space. Multi-beam sonar can obtain the three-dimensional distribution of terrain nodes. This node information is not just a height sequence, as it is used in previous methods. If we consider the nodes as a three-dimensional distribution of points with height and position information, this increases the matching position information and more of the terrain features can be extracted from the same measured data. Hence, in this paper, a terrain positioning method called the Node Multi-information Fusion (NMIF) is presented. This method focuses on improving the stability and accuracy degraded by bias in the Digital Elevation Map (DEM), terrain repeatability, and other factors. First, the concept of a Single Node Data Packet (SNDP) is introduced. The SNDP includes elevation and surface information surrounding the node, such as roughness, gradient, and slope. This additional topographic feature information improves the robustness and accuracy of the system. A computer simulation using actual ocean bottom topography verifies the advantages of the proposed NMIF algorithm.
Areas with low, adequate and excessive I content in water co-exist in China. Limited data are currently available on I nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women and their breast-fed infants with different I intakes. This study aimed to evaluate I nutrition in both lactating women and their infants and the prevalence of thyroid disease in areas with different levels of I in water. From January to June 2014, a total of 343 healthy lactating women (excluding those taking anti-thyroid drugs or I supplements within a year of the study, consuming seafood at the time of the study or those diagnosed with congenital thyroid disease) from Beihai in Guangxi province and Jiajiazhuang, Yangcheng, Jicun and Pingyao townships in Shanxi province were selected. Compared with the I-sufficient group, median urinary I concentrations in both lactating women and infants as well as breast milk I levels were significantly lower in the I-deficient group (P<0·001). The prevalence of thyroid disease in lactating women, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism, was higher in the I-excess group than in the I-sufficient group (P<0·05). In areas with excessive water I content, high thyroid peroxidase antibody and high thyroglobulin levels were risk factors for abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Our data collectively suggest that excessive I intake potentially causes subclinical hypothyroidism in lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of I status is important to avoid adverse effects of I deficiency or excess, particularly in susceptible populations such as pregnant or lactating women and infants.
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing–thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen–thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing–thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.
The impact of lubricants on pole-tip recession and surface morphology of hard disk drive heads in the precision lapping process was investigated with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and auger electron spectroscopy. In particular, the effects of deionized water, hydrocarbon oil, ethanediol, isopropanol, and ethanol lubricants were evaluated. The results reveal that proper selection of lubricant is critical for achieving optimal performance in the lapping process. A mixture of 68% hydrocarbon oil, 30% isopropanol, and 2% octadecenoic acid was found to yield the most favorable results, displaying a writer shield recession, first shield of reader recession, and surface roughness of 0.423, 0.581, and 0.242 nm, respectively.
Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, with its profound environmental and climatic changes from before the last glacial maximum (LGM) to the last deglaciation, is an ideal period for understanding the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and Indian summer monsoon (ISM), two Asian monsoon sub-systems. With 875 stable oxygen isotope ratios and 43 230Th dates from stalagmites in Sanxing Cave, southwestern China, we construct and interpret a new, replicated, Asian summer monsoon (ASM) record covering 30.9–9.7 ka with decadal resolution. δ18O records from this site and other reported Chinese caves display similar long-term orbitally dominated trends and synchronous millennial-scale strong and weak monsoonal events associated with climate changes in high northern latitudes. Interestingly, Sanxing δ18O and Arabian Sea records show a weakening ISM from 22 to 17 ka, while the Hulu and Qingtian records from East and Central China express a 3-ka intensifying EASM from 20 to 17 ka. This decoupling between EASM and ISM may be due to different sensitivities of the two ASM sub-systems in response to internal feedback mechanisms associated with the complex geographical or land-ocean configurations.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.