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Nutrition therapy is considered an important treatment of burn patients. The aim of the study was to delineate the nutritional support in severe burn patients and to investigate association between nutritional practice and clinical outcomes. Severe burn patients were enrolled (n 100). In 90 % of the cases, the burn injury covered above 70 % of the total body surface area. Mean interval from injury to nutrition start was 2·4 (sd 1·1) d. Sixty-seven patients were initiated with enteral nutrition (EN) with a median time of 1 d from injury to first feed. Twenty-two patients began with parenteral nutrition (PN). During the study, thirty-two patients developed EN intolerance. Patients received an average of about 70 % of prescribed energy and protein. Patients with EN providing <30 % energy had significantly higher 28- d and in-hospital mortality than patients with EN providing more than 30 % of energy. Mortality at 28 d was 11 % and in-hospital mortality was 45 %. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that EN providing <30 % energy and septic shock were independent risk factors for 28- d prognosis. EN could be initiated early in severe burn patients. Majority patients needed PN supplementation for energy requirement and EN feeding intolerance. Post-pyloric feeding is more efficient than gastric feeding in EN tolerance and energy supplement. It is difficult for severe burn patients to obtain enough feeding, especially in the early stage of the disease. More than 2 weeks of underfeeding is harmful to recovery.
Ethanolamine (Etn) contained in milk is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine and is required for the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria, which is important for maintenance of the gut microbiome and intestinal development. The present study investigated the effect of Etn on intestinal function and microbiome using 21-d-old Sprague–Dawley rats treated with 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μm Etn in drinking water for 2 weeks immediately after weaning. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and mucosal immunity, as well as gut microbiota community composition, were evaluated. Metagenomic prediction and metabolic phenotype analysis based on 16S RNA sequencing were also carried out to assess changes in metabolic functions. We found that weaned rats administered 500 μm Etn enhanced mucosal antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in the jejunum (P<0·05) compared with those in the control group. Predominant microbes including Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Elusimicrobia and Tenericutes were altered by different levels of Etn compared with the control group. An Etn concentration of 500 µm shifted colonic microbial metabolic functions that are in favour of lipid- and sugar-related metabolism and biosynthesis. Etn also altered the metabolic phenotypes such as anaerobic microbial counts, and oxidative stress tolerance at over 250 µm. This is the first report for a role of Etn in modifying gut microbiota and intestinal functions. Our findings highlighted the important role of Etn in shaping gut microbial community and promotes intestinal functions, which may provide a better insight of breast-feeding to infant’s gut health.
In the past few years, we have performed a 22 GHz H2O maser survey towards hundreds of BGPS sources using the 25-meter Nanshan Radio Telescope (NSRT) of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, and detected more than one hundred masers. Our aim is to study star formation activities associated with these sources, as well as search for any correlations that may exist between 22 GHz H2O masers and the evolutionary stage of high-mass star formation regions. The NSRT has been upgraded and have now an effective diameter of 26 meter. Besides, cryogenically cooled dual-beam receiver systems covering seven millimeter-wave observing bands have been installed on the NSRT. For the next step of maser observation, we will continue to do H2O and SiO masers survey of massive dust clumps and monitor some maser sources.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
Preclinical studies have suggested an anti-colorectal cancer effect of n-3 fatty acids, yet epidemiological studies have reported mixed results. The goal of the present meta-analysis was to examine the association between the dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We searched the PubMed database up to February 2012 to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to obtain a pooled relative risk (RR) comparing the highest intake of n-3 fatty acids with the lowest. We conducted subgroup analyses according to sex, geographic region, length of follow-up, cancer site and type of n-3 fatty acids. We included seven prospective studies in the meta-analysis, comprising 489 465 participants and 4656 incident cases. The pooled RR of colorectal cancer in relation to n-3 fatty acids was 0·98 (95 % CI 0·88, 1·09). The results from subgroup analysis indicated a significant reduced risk of colorectal cancer in relation to n-3 fatty acids among men (RR 0·87, 95 % CI 0·75, 1·00; n 4). No significant association was observed in other subgroups. There was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's test (P = 0·76) and Egger's test (P = 0·66). The present meta-analysis showed insufficient evidence of a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on colorectal cancer risk. However, a reduced risk observed in men warrants further investigation.
In recent years our team has performed H2CO(110 − 111) observations towards GMCs and HII regions with the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS. Here, we provide a summary of these observations. More than 200 new formaldehyde sources are detected, 8 extended GMC have been mapped, kinetic distances, Galactic structure and a related discussion are provided.
We collect all published OH, H2O, SiO and CH3OH masers in the literature. The associated infrared sources of these four masers were identified with MSX PSC catalogues. We look for common infrared properties among the sources associated with four masers and make a statistical study. The MSX sources associated with stellar OH, stellar H2O and SiO masers concentrated in a small regions and the MSX sources associated with interstellar OH, interstellar H2O and CH3OH masers also concentrated in a small regions in an [A]-[D].vs.[A][-[E] diagram. These results give us new criterion to search for coexisting stellar maser samples for OH, H2O and SiO masers and interstellar maser samples for OH, H2O and CH3OH masers.
Water masers are good tracers of high-mass star-forming regions. Water maser VLBI observations provide a good probe for studying high-mass star formation and galactic structure. We plan to make a blind survey toward the northern Galactic plane in future years using the 25 m radio telescope of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. We will select some water maser sources discovered in the survey and perform high resolution observations to study the gas kinematics close to high-mass protostars.
Zhou Z-H, Yuan G-Z, Yao J-J, Li C, Cheng Z-H. An event-related potential investigation of deficient inhibitory control in individuals with pathological Internet use.
The purpose of this study was to investigate deficient inhibitory control in individuals with pathological Internet use (PIU) using a visual go/no-go task by event-related potentials (ERPs).
Subjects were 26 individuals with PIU and 26 controls. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) was used for measures of impulsivity. A go/no-go task involved eight different two-digit numerical stimuli. The response window was 1000 ms and the inter-trial-interval (ITI) was 1500 ms. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when participants performed the task. Brain electrical source analysis (BESA) 5.2.0 was used to perform data analysis and the no-go N2 amplitude was analysed for investigation of inhibitory control.
BIS-11 total scores, attentional key and motor key scores in PIU group were higher than that of the control group. In the go/no-go task, false alarm rate of PIU group was higher, and hit rate was lower than that of the control group. A repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant group, frontal electrode sites and group × frontal electrode sites main effect for N2 amplitudes of no-go conditions (for group: F = 3953, df = 1, p = 0.000; for frontal electrode sites: F = 541, df = 9, p = 0.000; for group × frontal electrode sites: F = 306, df = 9, p = 0.000), and a significant group, central electrode sites and group × central electrode sites main effect for N2 amplitudes of no-go conditions (for group: F = 9074, df = 1, p = 0.000; for central electrode sites: F = 163, df = 2, p = 0.000; for group × central electrode sites: F = 73, df = 2, p = 0.000). N2 amplitudes of no-go conditions were lower than those at control group.
Individuals with PIU were more impulsive than controls and shared neuropsychological and ERPs characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, which supports that PIU is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of quetiapine on abnormalities of early auditory processing in patients with schizophrenia were reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN).
Subjects were 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and after 4-week and after 8-week treatments with quetiapine. Auditory stimuli for event-related potentials consisted of 100 ms/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 ms/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 ms/ 1000 Hz duration deviants. A stimulus onset asynchrony of each was 300 ms. Electroencephalograph was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from those elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli.
Quetiapine decreased all PANSS scores. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure analysis of variance with sessions (i.e. baseline and 4- and 8-week treatments) and MMN type (frequency versus duration) as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes (for MMN type: F = 0.704, df = 1, p = 0.403; for MMN type × session: F = 0.299, df = 2, p = 0.796). Session main effect was significant (F = 3.576, df = 2, p = 0.031). Least square difference tests showed significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline (p = 0.025) and 4 weeks (p = 0.020). MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks were higher than those at baseline.
Quetiapine improved the amplitudes of MMN after the 8-week treatment. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the quetiapine may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (type 1 IGF receptor or IGF1R) have played an important role in the growth and apoptosis of cancer. The RNA interference (RNAi) technique can suppress gene expression, but the effects of dual silencing of EGFR and type 1 IGF receptor have not been well understood.
pU6-EGFR-shRNA-1, pU6-EGFR-shRNA-2, pU6-IGF1R-shRNA-1 and pU6-IGF-1R-shRNA-2 plasimd vectors were transfected to the nasopharyngeal cancer cells. Seven groups were selected for the study. The protein and downstream protein expression were assessed by Western blot. Apoptosis was determined via flow cytometry. Meanwhile, chemosensitivity of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines transfeced to chemotherapeutic drugs were carried out by MTT.
In dual silencing of EGFR and IGF-1R, the protein expression much more was decreased than single silencing of EGFR or IGF-1R, but the cell apoptosis much more is increased than single silencing EGFR or IGF-1R. Dual silencing of EGFR and IGF-1R enhanced chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs, compared with single silencing of EGFR or IGF-1R.
Dual silencing of EGFR and IGF-1R are capable of suppressing EGFR and IGF-1R expression of the nasopharyngeal cancer cell and can promote apoptosis and increase the cell sensitivity of anticancer drug. The dual silencing of genes RNAi technique is significantly better than a single gene.
The structural gene encoding ApxII toxin (apxIIA) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) strain HB08 (serotype 2) and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the apxIIA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the expressed products could react with ApxII antibodies. The recombinant ApxIIA was purified from the inclusion bodies. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally vaccinated twice, with an interval of 2 weeks, using unfolded/refolded recombinant proteins, the native ApxII toxin extracted from the cultural supernatant of a strain of APP serotype 7 (APP-7) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Serum antibody was examined by ApxIIA-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 2 weeks after every vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of APP-7 (1.08 × 108 cfu per mouse). The protection rate reached 91.7% in the native ApxII group, 83.3% in the refolded recombinant protein group and 58.3% in the unfolded recombinant protein group, while all mice in the PBS group died within 36 h after challenge. Our data revealed that the refolded recombinant ApxIIA had excellent immunogenicity and could elicit protection against a lethal challenge of APP.
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