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The dipeptide dl-methionyl-dl-methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as dl-methionine and l-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0, 0·07, 0·15, 0·21, 0·28 and 0·38 % Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (17 g initial body weight). The results indicated that percentage weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4–D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content have no significant difference in fish fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestine belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Based on the growth results, the authors conclude that the optimal level of Met is 0·61 % Met with the addition of 0·15 % Met-Met for grower-phase O. niloticus.
Nutrition therapy is considered an important treatment of burn patients. The aim of the study was to delineate the nutritional support in severe burn patients and to investigate association between nutritional practice and clinical outcomes. Severe burn patients were enrolled (n 100). In 90 % of the cases, the burn injury covered above 70 % of the total body surface area. Mean interval from injury to nutrition start was 2·4 (sd 1·1) d. Sixty-seven patients were initiated with enteral nutrition (EN) with a median time of 1 d from injury to first feed. Twenty-two patients began with parenteral nutrition (PN). During the study, thirty-two patients developed EN intolerance. Patients received an average of about 70 % of prescribed energy and protein. Patients with EN providing <30 % energy had significantly higher 28- d and in-hospital mortality than patients with EN providing more than 30 % of energy. Mortality at 28 d was 11 % and in-hospital mortality was 45 %. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that EN providing <30 % energy and septic shock were independent risk factors for 28- d prognosis. EN could be initiated early in severe burn patients. Majority patients needed PN supplementation for energy requirement and EN feeding intolerance. Post-pyloric feeding is more efficient than gastric feeding in EN tolerance and energy supplement. It is difficult for severe burn patients to obtain enough feeding, especially in the early stage of the disease. More than 2 weeks of underfeeding is harmful to recovery.
To investigate the protein-sparing effect of α-lipoic acid (LA), experimental fish (initial body weight: 18·99 (sd 1·82) g) were fed on a 0, 600 or 1200 mg/kg α-LA diet for 56 d, and hepatocytes were treated with 20 μm compound C, the inhibitor of AMP kinase α (AMPKα), treated for 30 min before α-LA treatment for 24 h. LA significantly decreased lipid content of the whole body and other tissues (P<0·05), and it also promoted protein deposition in vivo (P<0·05). Further, dietary LA significantly decreased the TAG content of serum and increased the NEFA content of serum (P<0·05); however, there were no significant differences among all groups in the hepatopancreas and muscle (P>0·05). Consistent with results from the experiment in vitro, LA activated phosphorylation of AMPKα and notably increased the protein content of adipose TAG lipase in intraperitoneal fat, hepatopancreas and muscle in vivo (P<0·05). Meanwhile, LA significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation in the same three areas, and LA also obviously down-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in amino acid catabolism in muscle (P<0·05). Besides, it was observed that LA significantly activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in muscle of experimental fish (P<0·05). LA could promote lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation via increasing energy supply from lipid catabolism, and then, it could economise on the protein from energy production to increase protein deposition in grass carp. Besides, LA might directly promote protein synthesis through activating the mTOR pathway.
Associations between ferritin and insulin sensitivity have been described in recent studies. The possible association showed conflicting results by sex and menopausal status. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association of ferritin levels with insulin resistance and β-cell function. A total of 2518 participants (1033 men, 235 pre-menopausal women and 1250 post-menopausal women) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview was conducted, as well as anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses, for each participant. The serum ferritin level was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Insulin resistance and β-cell function indices were derived from a homeostasis model assessment. The results showed that the serum ferritin levels were 250·4 (sd 165·2), 94·6 (sd 82·0) and 179·8 (sd 126·6) ng/ml in the men, pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women, respectively. In fully adjusted models (adjusting for age, current smoking, BMI, waist:hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio, leucocytes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), serum ferritin concentrations are significantly associated with insulin resistance in men and post-menopausal females, and the null association was observed in pre-menopausal females. Interestingly, an increased β-cell function associated with higher ferritin was observed in post-menopausal participants, but not in male participants. In conclusion, these results suggested that elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with surrogate measures of insulin resistance among the middle-aged and elderly male and post-menopausal women, but not in pre-menopausal women.
Nanotechnology has been considered as a promising strategy for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. However, the stability and circulation times of the conventional nano-carriers, such as liposomes and micelles, are still unsatisfied. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are biologic inert synthetic materials, which are highly hydrophobic and have a tendency to self-aggregation. Additionally, PFCs themselves can act as 19F magnetic resonance imaging agents and oxygen carriers. Thus, the construction of the fluorinated carriers will not only improve the stability of the carriers, but also endow them with additional functions. Here we review the recent advances of PFC-based nanosystems for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
In the Venus capture period, it is difficult for celestial autonomous navigation to satisfy the requirement of high precision. To improve autonomous navigation performance, a Direction, Distance and Velocity (DDV) measurements deeply integrated navigation method is proposed. The “deeply” integrated navigation reflects the fact that the direction and velocity measurements suppress the Doppler effects in the pulsar signals. In the pulsar observation period, the direction and velocity measurements are utilised to compensate for Doppler effects in the pulsar signals. By these means, the residual effects can be ignored. When the direction, distance or velocity measurements are obtained, they are fused to improve the navigation performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the DDV measurements deeply integrated navigation filter converges very well, and provides highly accurate position estimation without a high quality requirement on navigation sensors.
The present study examines the characteristics of clay minerals in shale gas reservoirs and their influence on reservoir properties based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses were combined with optical microscopy observations and core and well-log data to investigate the genesis, distribution characteristics, main controlling factors and pore features of clay minerals of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the East Sichuan area, China. The clay mineral assemblage consists of illite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) + chlorite. This assemblage includes three sources of clay minerals: detrital, authigenic and diagenetic minerals. The lower section of the Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area has sealing ability which resulted in abnormal high pressures during hydrocarbon generation which inhibited illitization. Therefore, an anomalous transformation sequence is present in which the mixed-layer I-S content increases with depth. This anomalous transformation sequence can be used to infer the existence of abnormal high pressures. The detrital components of the formation also affect the clay-minerals content indirectly, especially the abundance of K-feldspar. The transformation of mixed-layer I-S to illite is limited due to the limited availability of K+, which determines the extent of transformation. Three types of pores were observed in the shale reservoir rocks of the Longmaxi Formation: interparticle (interP) pores, intraparticle (intraP) pores and organic-matter pores. The clay-mineral content controls the development of intraP pores, which are dominated by pores within clay particles. For a given clay mineral content, smectite and mixed-layer I-S were more conducive to the development of shale-gas reservoirs than other clay minerals.
The late Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin consists of five lithological units and with increasing depth include the: Chengdu Clay; Brown Clay; Red Clay; Sandy Silt; and basal Muddy Gravel. The genesis, provenance and age of the sediments, as well as the possible presence of hiatuses within this sequence are debated. Measurements of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, quartz content, quartz δ18O values, element composition, and Sr–Nd isotopic concentrations of samples from a typical sedimentary sequence in the area provides new insights into the genesis and history of the sequence. The new data confirm that the sediments in study site are alluvial–aeolian in origin, with basal alluvial deposits overlain by aeolian deposits. Like the uppermost Chengdu Clay, the underlying Brown Clay and Red Clay are aeolian in origin. In contrast, the Silty Sand, like the basal Muddy Gravel, is an alluvial deposit and not an aeolian deposit as previously thought. Moreover, the succession of the aeolian deposits very likely contains two significant sedimentary hiatuses. Sedimentological analysis demonstrates that the source materials for the aeolian deposits in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin and those on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are different. Furthermore, the loess deposits on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are derived from heterogeneous local sources.
For any given matrix A ∈ℂnxn, a preconditioner tU(A) called the
superoptimal preconditioner was proposed in 1992 by Tyrtyshnikov. It has been
shown that tU(A) is an efficient preconditioner for
solving various structured systems, for instance, Toeplitz-like systems. In this
paper, we construct the superoptimal preconditioners for different functions of
matrices. Let f be a function of matrices from ℂnxn to ℂnxn. For any A ∈ ℂ nxn, one may construct two superoptimal preconditioners for f(A):
tU(f(A)) and f(tU(A)).
We establish basic properties of tU(f(A)) and
f(tU(A)) for different functions of
matrices. Some numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed preconditioners are
very efficient for solving the system f(A)x = b.
Vertical Integrative Analysis (General Methods)
Jin Liu, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School,
Xingjie Shi, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, China,
Jian Huang, University of Iowa,
Shuangge Ma, Capital University of Economics and Business, China
With omics data, results generated from single-dataset analysis are often unsatisfactory. Integrative analysis methods conduct the joint analysis of data from multiple independent studies or on multiple correlated responses, can effectively increase power, and outperform single-dataset analysis and meta-analysis. In this chapter, we review the penalized integrative analysis methods under both the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. Computation using the coordinate descent approach is described. We also discuss several important extensions. The analysis of a genome-wide association study demonstrates the applicability of reviewed methods.
In the study of complex diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune diseases, profiling studies are nowroutinely conducted, generating “large d, small n” data, where the number of omics features profiled (genes, SNPs, methylation loci, etc.) d is much larger than the sample size n. Many different types of analyses can be conducted. For example, Chapters 3 and 4 were focused on identifying meaningful networks. In this chapter, our analysis goal is to identify a small subset of omics measurements that are associated with disease outcomes or phenotypes. Such measurements are also referred to as “markers” in the literature and in this chapter. Statistically, this is a variable selection problem. The development of integrative analysis methods has been partly motivated by the following examples.
8.1.1 Example 1
Consider the analysis of data generated in multiple independent studies with comparable designs. For example, in Ma et al. (2011), four pancreatic cancer data sets are collected and analyzed. The four data sets were generated in four independent studies, all having a case-control design, collecting mRNA gene expression measurements and searching for genes associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In high-dimensional omics studies, it has been recognized that the results generated in single-data-set analysis often have unsatisfactory properties such as low reproducibility. Among many possible contributing factors, the most important one is perhaps the small n. Multi-data-set analysis can effectively increase sample size and outperform single-data-set analysis (Guerra and Goldstein, 2009). This perspective has been explained in multiple chapters of this book. When the designs of multiple studies are “close enough”, it can be reasonable to expect that they identify the same set of markers.
Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of CVD: the increased serum ferritin level may be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A total of 1178 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60·8 years) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses were performed for each participant. Bilateral CIMT (carotid intima–media thickness) were measured using ultrasonography, and the presence of carotid plaques was assessed. Serum ferritin was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The results showed that serum ferritin was 181·9 (sd 65·8) ng/ml in the postmenopausal women. Multivariate, linear, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age (standardised β = 0·233, P< 0·001), alanine transaminase (standardised β = 0·194, P< 0·001), log homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (standardised β = 0·181, P< 0·001), TAG (standardised β = 0·083, P= 0·003), Hb (standardised β = 0·080, P= 0·004) and PPG (2-h glucose levels following a 75-g oral glucose challenge) (standardised β = 0·079, P= 0·004) were independently associated with serum ferritin. Compared with the ferritin level of subjects in the first quartile, that in the fourth quartile had greater CIMT, and higher prevalence of carotid plaque. After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, Hb, leucocytes, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio and liver function, the ferritin level of postmenopausal women in the fourth quartile had a 1·587-fold increased risk of carotid plaques relative to those in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
The performance of Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) integrated navigation is reduced when GPS is blocked. This paper proposes an algorithm to overcome the condition where GPS is unavailable. Together with a parameter-optimised Genetic Algorithm (GA), a Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithm is used to construct the mapping function between the specific force, angular rate increments of INS measurements and the increments of the GPS position. During GPS outages, the real-time pseudo-GPS position is predicted with the mapping function, and the corresponding covariance matrix is estimated by an improved adaptive filtering algorithm. A GPS/INS integration scheme is demonstrated where the vehicle travels along a straight line and around a curve, with respect to both low-speed-stable and high-speed-unstable navigation platforms. The results show that the proposed algorithm provides a better performance when GPS is unavailable.
Many solar fuel generator designs involve illumination of a photoabsorber stack coated with a catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this design, impinging light must pass through the catalyst layer before reaching the photoabsorber(s), and thus optical transmission is an important function of the OER catalyst layer. Many oxide catalysts, such as those containing elements Ni and Co, form oxide or oxyhydroxide phases in alkaline solution at operational potentials that differ from the phases observed in ambient conditions. To characterize the transparency of such catalysts during OER operation, 1031 unique compositions containing the elements Ni, Co, Ce, La, and Fe were prepared by a high throughput inkjet printing technique. The catalytic current of each composition was recorded at an OER overpotential of 0.33 V with simultaneous measurement of the spectral transmission. By combining the optical and catalytic properties, the combined catalyst efficiency was calculated to identify the optimal catalysts for solar fuel applications within the material library. The measurements required development of a new high throughput instrument with integrated electrochemistry and spectroscopy measurements, which enables various spectroelectrochemistry experiments.
This study was to analyze the microstructure, microhardness, tensile and fatigue performance of the welded joints performed by a fiber laser on 22MnB5 and dual-phase steels (DP590, DP980) in similar and dissimilar combinations. The result shows that the weld zone (WZ) basically consisted of lath martensite. The HAZ in these steels can be divided into 3 parts: quenched, incomplete quenched, and tempered region. The WZ had the highest hardness, and a soft zone existed in the HAZ of all steels. Inside the WZ of the dissimilar welded joints, two hardness subregions were observed due to the difference in the alloying elements of these steels. Tensile specimens of the 22MnB5–22MnB5 and 22MnB5–DP980 welded joints were all broken in HAZ, while the 22MnB5–DP590 welded joints failed in the DP590 base metal (BM). The BM had a higher fatigue life than the welded joints, and the fatigue failure of the 22MnB5 similar and 22MnB5–DP980 dissimilar welded joints respectively occurred in the HAZ and DP980 BM. The fatigue fracture contained 3 parts: crack initiation, crack propagation, and the final fast fracture region.
Previous studies have reported that the first polar body (PB1) morphology reflects embryo development competence, but the effects of PB1 on porcine embryo development remain unknown. This study aims to determine whether the ability of porcine embryo development is related to oocytes’ PB1 in vitro. The distribution of type II cortical granules (CGs) of porcine matured oocytes in grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in grades A and C PB1 (71.43% versus 52.46% and 50%; P < 0.05). The ratio of porcine parthenogenetic blastocysts and the mean cell number in each blastocyst in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater than that with grades A and C PB1 (30.81% vs. 19.02% and 15.15%; P < 0.05) and (36.67 versus 24.67, 28.67; P < 0.05), and no significant differences are found in the embryo cleavage for all groups (79.75%, 84.30%, and 78.18% in grades A, B, and C PB1; P > 0.05). The acetylation level of porcine embryos in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in the other groups (P < 0.05), and is almost 2.5 times higher than that in grade A. Therefore, porcine oocytes with PB1 in grade B are more competitive in cytoplasmic maturation and further embryo development in vitro.
Flexible electronics and microsystems are an emerging technology with a tremedous impact to the future electronics and information technology and widespread applications. Various devices and microsystems have been developed. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are a type of essential device for electronics, microsensors and microsystems; however there is no activity on the development of flexible SAW devices yet. This paper reports the development of flexible SAW devices on cheap, bendable and disposable plastic films. Flexible SAW devices with resonant frequency of 198.1 MHz and 447 MHz for the Rayleigh and Lamb waves respectively have been obtained with a large transmission signal up to 18dB. The flexible SAW devices have also demonstrated their ability for acoustic streaming with a velocity up to 3.4 cm/s and for particle concentration. The results have clearly demonstrated that the flexible SAW devices have great potential for applications in electronics and microsystems.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are chronic neuro-inflammatory diseases believed to arise from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL)-2 and -7 receptor alpha genes have been identified as novel susceptibility alleles for MS in genome-wide association studies. However, similar research on NMO is limited. We aimed to investigate the association of IL2RA SNPs rs2104286 and rs12722489 and IL7RA SNP rs6897932 with Southern Han Chinese NMO and MS patients.
Frequencies of the three SNPs were examined in Southern Han Chinese mS cases (n=78), NMS cases (n=67) and controls (n=133) using sequencing-based typing.
The rs2104286G frequency in the IL2RA gene was significantly higher in NMO patients than in controls (puncorr=0.013, pcorr=0.026, OR:1.942, 95%CI:1.146-3.291).
The rs2104286 G allele in IL2RA is present at higher frequencies in NMO patients than in healthy controls within a Southern Han Chinese population.