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In this study, we focus on the temporal behaviors – speed and rhythm – of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs) and examine the effect of such behaviors on innovation performance. Using a learning perspective, we argue that OFDI speed has an inverted U-shaped effect on EMNEs’ innovation performance, whereas the relationship between the uneven rhythm of OFDI and innovation performance is negative. The results, based on OFDI panel data of 1,092 Chinese firms, support our predictions that a moderate OFDI speed and a more regular pattern of OFDI expansion provide sources of competitiveness and contribute to firms’ innovation performance.
Strategic decision makers interpret information and translate it into organizational action through the lens of strategic schemas. How should firms realize high performance with various strategic schemas? Cognitive content and structure have been shown to underlie strategic schemas, but few studies have considered them together. This study employs aggregation analysis to clarify the interaction between cognitive content (technology orientation, market orientation) and structure (complexity, centrality) in affecting the firm performance (FP) of ‘hidden champion’ companies, identified by the Economy and Information Technology Department of Zhejiang Province, China. The empirical method applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to generate strategic schema profiles for high FP. This exploratory study fills a gap in the literature on managerial cognition and provides key lessons from ‘hidden champion’ companies in China and their paths for small- and medium-sized enterprises to grow.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer (BC) risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013–2014).
A population-based case–control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western and Picky; the proportion in the controls and cases was 0·30/0·32/0·16/0·23 and 0·29/0·26/0·11/0·33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterised by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption of specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soya foods and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1·42, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR = 1·44, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·05) but not in premenopausal women. The Western class characterised by high-protein, high-fat and high-sugar foods, and the Chinese traditional class characterised by typical consumption of soya foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA captures the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population and could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of BC.
In this work, SnS1−xSex ternary nanobelts were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method without the assistance of surfactants. The structure, morphology, microstructure, compositions, chemical valences, phonon modes, and optical band gaps of the SnS1−xSex nanobelts were characterized in detail. The results indicate that the SnS1−xSex nanobelts have uniform one-dimensional morphology and are single crystals with high crystallinity. Se is incorporated into the SnS lattice to substitute for S-forming ternary SnS1−xSex alloy. With the increase of Se doping concentration, the optical band gaps of the nanobelts gradually decrease from 1.15 to 1.01 eV, confirming the tunable optical property achieved here.
Quasar black hole masses are most commonly estimated using broad emission lines in single epoch spectra based on scaling relationships determined from reverberation mapping of small samples of low-redshift objects. Several effects have been identified requiring modifications to these scaling relationships, resulting in significant reductions of the black hole mass determinations at high redshift. Correcting these systematic biases is critical to understanding the relationships among black hole and host galaxy properties. We are completing a program using the Gemini North telescope, called the Gemini North Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) Distant Quasar Survey (DQS), that has produced rest-frame optical spectra of about 200 high-redshift quasars (z = 1.5–3.5). The GNIRS-DQS will produce new and improved ultraviolet-based black hole mass and accretion rate prescriptions, as well as new redshift prescriptions for velocity zero points of high-z quasars, necessary to measure feedback.
The rhoptry kinase 18 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgROP18) has been identified as a key virulence factor that allows the parasite to escape from host immune defences and promotes its proliferation in host cells. Although much research is focused on the interaction between host cells and TgROP18, the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TgROP18 has not been reported till date. To produce mAbs targeting TgROP18, two hybridomas secreting mAbs against TgROP18, designated as A1 and T2, were generated using cell fusion technology. The subtypes of the A1 and T2 mAbs were identified as IgG3 λ and IgM κ, and peptide scanning revealed that the core sequences of the antigenic epitopes were 180LRAQRRRSELVFE192 and 351NYFLLMMRAEADM363, respectively. The T2 mAb specifically reacted with both T. gondii type I and Chinese I, but not with T. gondii type II, Plasmodium falciparum or Schistosoma japonicum. Finally, the sequences of heavy chain and light chain complementarity-determining regions of T2 were amplified, cloned and characterized, making the modification of the mAb feasible in the future. The development of mAbs against TgROP18 would aid the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of host cellular functions by TgROP18, and in the development of strategies to diagnose and treat Toxoplasmosis.
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) exhibit multi-wavelength properties that are representative of the underlying physical processes taking place in the vicinity of the accreting supermassive black hole. The black hole mass and the accretion rate are fundamental for understanding the growth of black holes, their evolution, and the impact on the host galaxies. Recent results on reverberation-mapped AGNs show that the highest accretion rate objects have systematic shorter time-lags. These super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) show BLR size 3-8 times smaller than predicted by the Radius-Luminosity (R-L) relationship. Hence, the single-epoch virial black hole mass estimates of highly accreting AGNs have an overestimation of a factor of 3-8 times. SEAMBHs likely have a slim accretion disk rather than a thin disk that is diagnostic in X-ray. I will present the extreme X-ray properties of a sample of dozen of SEAMBHs. They indeed have a steep hard X-ray photon index, Γ, and demonstrate a steeper power-law slope, ασx.
A robust adaptive nonlinear asymptotic regulating control law is designed for dynamically positioned vessels exposed to unknown time-varying external disturbances incorporating Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLSs), projection operators, and the “robustifying” term into the vectorial backstepping technique. The FLSs approximate the vessel unknown dynamics and the update laws based on the online projection operators update the fuzzy weight vectors. The robustifying term handles the external disturbances and the fuzzy approximation errors. The designed Dynamic Positioning (DP) control law achieves asymptotic regulation of the vessel's position and heading and makes the other signals in the DP closed-loop control system of vessels be uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulations based on the Marine System Simulator toolbox validate the designed DP control law.
To investigate the protein-sparing effect of α-lipoic acid (LA), experimental fish (initial body weight: 18·99 (sd 1·82) g) were fed on a 0, 600 or 1200 mg/kg α-LA diet for 56 d, and hepatocytes were treated with 20 μm compound C, the inhibitor of AMP kinase α (AMPKα), treated for 30 min before α-LA treatment for 24 h. LA significantly decreased lipid content of the whole body and other tissues (P<0·05), and it also promoted protein deposition in vivo (P<0·05). Further, dietary LA significantly decreased the TAG content of serum and increased the NEFA content of serum (P<0·05); however, there were no significant differences among all groups in the hepatopancreas and muscle (P>0·05). Consistent with results from the experiment in vitro, LA activated phosphorylation of AMPKα and notably increased the protein content of adipose TAG lipase in intraperitoneal fat, hepatopancreas and muscle in vivo (P<0·05). Meanwhile, LA significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation in the same three areas, and LA also obviously down-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in amino acid catabolism in muscle (P<0·05). Besides, it was observed that LA significantly activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in muscle of experimental fish (P<0·05). LA could promote lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation via increasing energy supply from lipid catabolism, and then, it could economise on the protein from energy production to increase protein deposition in grass carp. Besides, LA might directly promote protein synthesis through activating the mTOR pathway.
Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.
Rietveld-based quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) has been extensively used for mineralogical characterization in order to understand the reaction chemistry, and kinetics of minerals leaching and formation. This work presents examples where QXRD has been applied to understanding fundamental aspects of these two processes. Firstly, the co-processing of nickel laterites and sulphidic materials has the potential to offer several advantages that include the use of lower grade (including non-smeltable) concentrates, improvement in the rheological behaviour of the blends, and reduction in the use of sulphuric acid. The leaching kinetics and chemistry of mixed nickel laterite ore and sulphide concentrate were explored by the QXRD analysis of feed materials and, intermediates and final leach residues produced using controlled oxidation rates. Under high temperature (250 °C) and pressure oxidation (~40 to 45 atm.) conditions, sulphide minerals in the nickel concentrate underwent several oxidative hydrothermal transformations, and ferrous iron was oxidized and precipitated primarily as hematite. High recovery of nickel can be achieved with low acid consumption under these conditions. Secondly, iron precipitation/removal is an important down-stream process in hydrometallurgy. Moderate concentrations of ferrous iron can be oxidized using micro-organisms with oxidation rates several orders of magnitude faster compared with abiotic oxidation at ambient temperature and pressure. QXRD and chemical analysis have indicated that after oxidation, iron at pH ~2 mostly precipitates as jarosite with various amounts of K+, Na+, NH4+, and H3O+ incorporated into the structure. Bio-catalysed iron removal can be achieved with minimum copper and nickel losses at relatively low pH conditions.
Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of congenital brain disease; however, the underlying mechanism of neuropathogenesis in brain toxoplasmosis remains elusive. To explore the role of T. gondii in the development of neural stem cells (NSCs), NSCs were isolated from GD14 embryos of ICR mice and were co-cultured with tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain. We found that apoptosis levels of the NSCs co-cultured with 1×106 RH tachyzoites for 24 and 48 h significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with the control. Western blotting analysis displayed that the protein level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was up-regulated, and caspase-12 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were activated in the NSCs co-cultured with the parasites. Pretreatment with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inhibitor (TUDCA) and caspase-12 inhibitor (Z-ATAD-FMK) inhibited the expression or activation of the key molecules involved in the ERS-mediated apoptotic pathway, and subsequently decreased the apoptosis levels of the NSCs induced by the T. gondii. The findings here highlight that T. gondii induced apoptosis of the NSCs through the ERS signal pathway via activation of CHOP, caspase-12 and JNK, which may constitute a potential molecular mechanism responsible for the cognitive disturbance in neurological disorders of T. gondii.
Many problems in biology involve gels which are mixtures composed of a polymer network permeated by a fluid solvent (water). The two-fluid model is a widely used approach to described gel mechanics, in which both network and solvent coexist at each point of space and their relative abundance is described by their volume fractions. Each phase is modeled as a continuum with its own velocity and constitutive law. In some biological applications, free boundaries separate regions of gel and regions of pure solvent, resulting in a degenerate network momentum equation where the network volume fraction vanishes. To overcome this difficulty, we develop a regularization method to solve the two-phase gel equations when the volume fraction of one phase goes to zero in part of the computational domain. A small and constant network volume fraction is temporarily added throughout the domain in setting up the discrete linear equations and the same set of equation is solved everywhere. These equations are very poorly conditioned for small values of the regularization parameter, but the multigrid-preconditioned GMRES method we use to solve them is efficient and produces an accurate solution of these equations for the full range of relevant regularization parameter values.
We consider the finite element based computation of topological quantities of implicitly represented surfaces within a diffuse interface framework. Utilizing an adaptive finite element implementation with effective gradient recovery techniques, we discuss how the Euler number can be accurately computed directly from the nu-merically solved phase field functions or order parameters. Numerical examples and applications to the topological analysis of point clouds are also presented.
Ultrashort electron bunch trains can be used for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) to overcome the limit of transformer ratio of a single electron bunch, or high-power terahertz (Thz) radiation production by various radiation mechanisms. Basic facility for high-power THz radiation development based on ultrashort electron beam has been set up at accelerator lab of TUB. Using birefringent crystal serials, ultraviolet (UV) pulse shaping for photocathode radio frequency gun to produce THz-repetition-rate pulse train was realized. Driven by such pulses, ultrashort electron bunch train with picosecond (ps) spacing was obtained for THz production. Measurement of the stacked UV pulse trains was done by difference frequency generation (DFG), and the measured group velocity mismatch of α-BBO crystal at 266.7-nm wavelength was 0.8 ps/mm. This method may also be applied to form ramped electron bunch trains for PWFA.
Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35–70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week. The results showed that inclusion of the three oily fish significantly increased the intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) while decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Compared to the control group, significant increases of DHA, EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFA in plasma choline phosphoglyceride were observed in the three oily fish groups. Plasma TAG levels were significantly reduced only in the salmon and herring groups. When compared to the baseline level, the three oily fish diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of TAG, apoB, apoCII and apoCIII, but only the salmon and herring diets significantly lowered TNF-α and raised adiponectin levels in serum. The salmon diet additionally decreased the serum concentration of IL-6. To conclude, dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish can effectively increase serum n-3 LC-PUFA content and are associated with favourable biochemical changes in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women, and these beneficial effects are mainly associated with n-3 LC-PUFA contents.
Mg2Si1−xSnx compounds are promising as “environmentally friendly” thermoelectric (TE) materials. For years, investigations of the TE properties of these compounds have been hindered by the poor reproducibility in sample preparation. In this work, we used a recently developed simple B2O3 flux method to prepare Mg2Si1−xSnx compounds over a wide composition range (0.1 ≤x≤ 0.8). The phase structure, microstructure, and TE properties have been investigated. We found that a miscibility gap existed at 0.2 ≤x≤ 0.45, substantially lower than the more generally accepted values 0.4 ≤x≤ 0.6, and a low lattice thermal conductivity of 1.4 W·m−1·K−1 in undoped Mg2Si0.55Sn0.45, which led to a ZT ∼0.3 at 550 K. These results constitute a solid basis for investigating further optimization of the Mg2Si1−xSnx-based TE materials via doping and possibly nanostrucuring approaches.
Both stunting and overweight are present in children across China. Seemingly paradoxical, these two conditions can also coexist in the same child. The aim was to examine the associations between dietary food/nutrient intake and plasma lipid profiles related to stunting and overweight status.
The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey was a family-based nationally representative cross-sectional study.
Thirty-one provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.
The study included 13 770 children aged 2–17 years. The sample size for the four exposure groups was 10 814 for children of normal height and weight, 2128 for stunted, 729 for overweight and 99 for stunted overweight.
Compared with children of normal height and weight, stunted and stunted overweight children consumed more high-energy-dense foods with a lower dietary diversity score, less protein, polyunsaturated fat and Fe, and a higher molar ratio of phytate to Ca. On the contrary, overweight children tended to consume significantly less carbohydrates and more protein and fat. Overall, stunted overweight children consumed lower amounts of vegetables, fruit, white meat (poultry and fish) and more milk. The OR for prevalent dyslipidaemia were 1·32 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·53), 1·76 (95 % CI 1·48, 2·09) and 2·59 (95 % CI 1·65, 4·07) among stunted, overweight and stunted overweight children, respectively, compared with children of normal height and weight. In addition, being overweight was significantly associated with high glucose concentrations, whereas stunting was significantly associated with having anaemia.
Limited dietary diversity and intake of high-energy-dense foods were notably observed among stunted overweight children. Furthermore, being stunted and/or overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of unhealthy lipid profiles.
As reviewed in Chapter 3, numerous theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out in recent decades in an attempt to model the hydrodynamics of spouted beds. Most of the early models are one-dimensional, with spout and annulus considered separately by assuming that some parameters are constant. In addition, these models, though useful as first approximations, are complex, or require parameters to be determined by experiments.
Thanks to the explosion of computational power, the advance of numerical algorithms, and deeper understanding of multiphase flow phenomena, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has become a powerful tool for understanding dense gas–solid two-phase flows in the recent past. The main advantage of CFD modeling is that a wide range of flow properties of the gas and solids may be predicted simultaneously without disturbing the flows.
Currently, there are two main CFD approaches: the Eulerian-Eulerian approach (two-fluid model, TFM), and the Eulerian-Lagrangian (discrete element method, DEM) approach. In the following two sections, the fundamentals and applications of these two approaches in hydrodynamic modeling of spouted beds are treated separately. In each section, the main aspects of the CFD approach are introduced briefly, followed by application to modeling of spouted bed hydrodynamics. Comparison of the CFD predictions with experimental results is also discussed.