To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Dietary salt intake may vary depending on different lifestyles. We aimed to estimate the different salt intakes and evaluate the knowledge and self-awareness about salt among people speaking the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects in the Chaoshan region of southern China.
The study followed a cluster sampling of residents in Chaoshan region. General characteristics, lifestyles, health status as well as knowledge and self-awareness related to salt intake were investigated using a questionnaire. Anthropometric variables as well as Na and K excretion in a 24-h urine collection were measured.
Chaoshan region of China.
Four hundred fifteen adults who spoke only one of these three dialects.
The salt intake of adults who spoke the Teochew, Teochew–Hakka and Hakka dialects was 7·19 (interquartile range (IQR) 5·29–10·17), 9·03 (IQR 6·62–11·54) and 10·12 (IQR 7·61–12·82) g/d, respectively, with significant differences between Teochew and Teochew–Hakka speakers and between Teochew and Hakka speakers (both P < 0·05). The Na:K ratio for adults who spoke the three dialects was 3·00 (IQR 2·00–4·11), 3·50 (IQR 2·64–4·82) and 4·52 (IQR 3·35–5·97), respectively, and differed significantly among the groups (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed increased Na:K ratio associated with hypertension (β = 0·71, P = 0·043) in Hakka speakers. Knowledge and self-awareness about salt intake were poor in this population.
Salt intake was closely related to lifestyles and was higher than the upper limit (5 g/d) recommended by the WHO in adults of Chaoshan, especially those speaking the Hakka dialect.
As an emerging infectious disease, COVID-19 has involved many countries and regions. With the further development of the epidemic, the proportion of clusters has increased.
In our study, we collected information on COVID-19 clusters in Qingdao City. The epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations were analyzed.
Eleven clusters of COVID-19 were reported in Qingdao City between January 29, and February 23, 2020, involving 44 confirmed cases, which accounted for 73.33% of all confirmed cases. From January 19 to February 2, 2020, the cases mainly concentrated in the district that had many designated hospitals. Patients aged 20-59 y old accounted for the largest proportion (68.18%) of cases; the male-to-female sex ratio was 0.52:1. Three cases were infected from exposure to confirmed cases. The average incubation period was 6.28 d. The median number of cases per cluster was 4, and the median duration time was 6 d. The median cumulative number of exposed persons was 53.
More attention should be paid to the epidemic of clusters in prevention and control of COVID-19. In addition to isolating patients, it is essential to track, screen, and isolate those who have come in close contact with patients. Self-isolation is the key especially for healthy people in the epidemic area.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterised by left ventricular asymmetry hypertrophy. However, our knowledge of the genetic background in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases is limited. Here, we aimed to evaluate pathogenic gene mutations in a family with high-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and analyse the genotype/phenotype relationships in this family.
The proband, her parents, and her niece underwent whole-exome sequencing, and the genotypes of family members were identified using Sanger sequencing. mRNA expression was detected using reverse transcription sequencing. Structural impairments were predicted by homologous modelling. A family survey was conducted for patients with positive results to obtain information on general clinical symptoms, electrocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 3.0T cardiac magnetic resonance findings. Regular follow-up was performed for up to 6 months.
Five family members, including the proband, carried a cleavage site mutation in the MYBPC3 gene (c.2737+1 (IVS26) G>T), causing exon 26 of the MYBPC3 gene transcript to be skipped and leading to truncation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C. Family survey showed that the earliest onset age was 13 years old, and three people had died suddenly at less than 40 years old. Three pathogenic gene carriers were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and all showed severe ventricular septal hypertrophy.
The c.2737+1 (IVS26) G>T mutation in the MYBPC3 gene led to exon 26 skipping, thereby affecting the structure and function of cardiac myosin-binding protein C and leading to severe ventricular hypertrophy and sudden death.
The jungles of Linyun and Longlin Autonomous Prefecture, located in the heart of the southwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, are home to the oldest tea trees (Camellia sinensis) in the world. In the absence of regular annual rings, radiocarbon (14C) dating is one of the most powerful tools that can assist in the determination of the ages and growth rates of these plants. In this work, cores were extracted from large ancient tea trees in a central Longlin rain forest; extraction of carbon was performed with an automated sample preparation system. The 14C levels in the tree cores were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Tsukuba. These measurements indicated that contrary to conventional views, the ages of trees in these forests range up to ~700 years, and the growth rate of this species is notably slow, exhibiting a long-term radial growth rate of 0.039±0.006 cm/yr. It was demonstrated that 14C analyses provide accurate determination of ages and growth rates for subtropical wild tea trees.
l-Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-Carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-Carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-Carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-Carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
Multi-functions devices attract much attention due to their great potential and large demands in wearable electronics. Besides some studies of integrated different functional devices as one, there is a novel strategy to fabricate multi-functions devices, that using one device to achieve two or more functions. Herein, we report the temperature sensing and energy storage multi-functions device based on graphene supercapacitor. By measuring the change of leakage current of supercapacitor, the obtained device could detect the environmental temperature. Integrating the planar-structure supercapacitor on one flexible printed circuit board with electronic components together, the obtain device presents perfect mechanical stability that no noticeable difference of both capacitance and leakage current under any bending status. Importantly, the temperature sensing function exhibits a high accuracy of 1 °C with a high resolution of 0.0588 °C. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the strategy of one device achieve two functions: using one supercapacitor to achieve temperature sensing and energy storage dual function simultaneously.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
For 2D elastic-plastic flows with the hypo-elastic constitutive model and von Mises’ yielding condition, the non-conservative character of the hypo-elastic constitutive model and the von Mises’ yielding condition make the construction of the solution to the Riemann problem a challenging task. In this paper, we first analyze the wave structure of the Riemann problem and develop accordingly a Four-Rarefaction wave approximate Riemann Solver with Elastic waves (FRRSE). In the construction of FRRSE one needs to use an iterative method. A direct iteration procedure for four variables is complex and computationally expensive. In order to simplify the solution procedure we develop an iteration based on two nested iterations upon two variables, and our iteration method is simple in implementation and efficient. Based on FRRSE as a building block, we propose a 2nd-order cell-centered Lagrangian numerical scheme. Numerical results with smooth solutions show that the scheme is of second-order accuracy. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments with shock and rarefaction waves demonstrate the scheme is essentially non-oscillatory and appears to be convergent. For shock waves the present scheme has comparable accuracy to that of the scheme developed by Maire et al., while it is more accurate in resolving rarefaction waves.
With an aim to develop novel Cu–Zn alloys with high mechanical properties, in this study, Ni and Si elements were added to Cu–10Zn and Cu–20Zn alloys, and four kinds of Cu–Zn alloys were synthesized through gravity casting. The effect of the addition of Ni and Si on the microstructure and mechanical properties has been systematically investigated. Results revealed that the addition of Ni and Si not only refined the microstructure but also played significant roles to improve the mechanical properties of Cu–Zn alloys; δ-Ni2Si precipitates were formed in the Cu–20Zn–1.5Ni–0.34Si alloy, which obeyed a crystal orientation relationship of (001)Cu‖(001)δ and Cu‖δ. As compared with the Cu–20Zn alloy, the tensile strength of the studied Cu–20Zn–1.5Ni–0.34Si alloy was increased from 373.2 MPa to 776.4 MPa, and the yield strength increased from 242.1 MPa to 718.4 MPa. Operative strengthening mechanisms in the Cu–20Zn–1.5Ni–0.34Si alloy with different thermal-mechanical treatment states will be discussed in detail with the aim to draw a new strategy to develop high strength brass alloys.
To investigate the effects of maternal dietary protein restriction on offspring Fe metabolism, twenty-four second-parity Landrace×Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to standard-protein (SP) and low-protein (LP) groups. The SP sows were fed diets containing 15 and 18 % crude protein throughout pregnancy and lactation, respectively, whereas the LP sows were subjected to 50 % dietary protein restriction. Offspring birth weight was not affected, but the body weight at weaning (P=0·06) and average daily gain (P=0·01) of the female piglets were significantly decreased. Serum Fe level in the LP piglets was markedly decreased at weaning, especially in males (P=0·03). Serum ferritin level (P=0·08) tended to be lower, yet serum transferrin was greatly higher (P=0·01) in male weaning piglets of the LP group. Duodenal expression of the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN) was surprisingly reduced (P<0·05) at the level of protein, but not at the mRNA level, in male weaning piglets of the LP group. Male weaning piglets born to the LP sows exhibited higher hepatic hepcidin levels (P=0·09), lower hepatic expression of transferrin (P<0·01) and transferrin receptor 1 (P<0·05) at the level of mRNA. However, no significant differences were observed for hepatic Fe storage, ferritin, transferrin and transferrin receptor 1 protein expression in male weaning piglets of the two groups. These results indicate that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation influences growth of female offspring at weaning, reduces duodenal expression of Fe transporters (DMT1 and FPN) and decreases serum Fe level in male weaning piglets.
Femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW) in transparent materials is a laser-based precise three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanofabrication method that has shown great potential for applications. The advantages of FsLDW originate in the nonlinear nature of absorption in the multiphoton absorption process. Over the past few years, transparent material micro/nanofabrication using FsLDW has seen several developments in materials and applications. Specifically, two-photon polymerization has been widely used as a precision direct-writing process for fabrication of polymeric 3D micro/nanostructures; internal/surface ablation of polymer 3D structures based on multiphoton absorption has been demonstrated and developed as a promising subtractive manufacturing technique; and femtosecond laser multiphoton modification in glass has been intensively studied for refractive-index change and generation of nanogratings and microvoids. This article describes the latest research on FsLDW in polymers and glasses with specific applications for large-dimension fabrication, microelectromechanical systems, microphotonics, and microfluidics.
The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.
In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG.
Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS.
We studied 2468 women aged 18–80 years from the CHNS.
We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=−0·68; 95 % CI −1·22, −0·14; P<0·05). The snack pattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; P<0·05). The Western pattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; P<0·01) and LDL-C (β=2·26; 95 % CI 0·86, 3·66; P<0·01).
We identified three dietary patterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.
The present study aimed to explore the associations between food away-from-home (FAFH) consumption and body weight outcomes among Chinese adults.
FAFH was defined as food prepared at restaurants and the percentage of energy from FAFH was calculated. Measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as body weight outcomes. Quantile regression models for BMI and WC were performed separately by gender.
Information on demographic, socio-economic, diet and health parameters at individual, household and community levels was collected in twelve provinces of China.
A cross-sectional sample of 7738 non-pregnant individuals aged 18–60 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011 was analysed.
For males, quantile regression models showed that percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0·01, 0·01, 0·01, 0·02, 0·02 and 0·03 kg/m2 at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile, and an increase in WC of 0·04, 0·06, 0·06, 0·04, 0·06, 0·05 and 0·07 cm at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile. For females, percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with 0·01, 0·01, 0·01 and 0·02 kg/m2 increase in BMI at the 10th, 25th, 90th and 95th quantile, and with 0·05, 0·04, 0·03 and 0·03 cm increase in WC at the 5th, 10th, 25th and 75th quantile.
Our findings suggest that FAFH consumption is relatively more important for BMI and WC among males rather than females in China. Public health initiatives are needed to encourage Chinese adults to make healthy food choices when eating out.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0–5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0–5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (rs = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (rs = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (rs = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme.
Areas with low, adequate and excessive I content in water co-exist in China. Limited data are currently available on I nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women and their breast-fed infants with different I intakes. This study aimed to evaluate I nutrition in both lactating women and their infants and the prevalence of thyroid disease in areas with different levels of I in water. From January to June 2014, a total of 343 healthy lactating women (excluding those taking anti-thyroid drugs or I supplements within a year of the study, consuming seafood at the time of the study or those diagnosed with congenital thyroid disease) from Beihai in Guangxi province and Jiajiazhuang, Yangcheng, Jicun and Pingyao townships in Shanxi province were selected. Compared with the I-sufficient group, median urinary I concentrations in both lactating women and infants as well as breast milk I levels were significantly lower in the I-deficient group (P<0·001). The prevalence of thyroid disease in lactating women, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism, was higher in the I-excess group than in the I-sufficient group (P<0·05). In areas with excessive water I content, high thyroid peroxidase antibody and high thyroglobulin levels were risk factors for abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Our data collectively suggest that excessive I intake potentially causes subclinical hypothyroidism in lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of I status is important to avoid adverse effects of I deficiency or excess, particularly in susceptible populations such as pregnant or lactating women and infants.
Large-scale blooms of dinoflagellates, such as Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia mikimotoi, have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, little is known about their effects on the entire life history of copepods. Under laboratory conditions, we investigated the effects of these two common dinoflagellates on the survival of Calanus sinicus individuals at different stages and on reproduction of this copepod. Compared with the control treatment (Skeletonema costatum), the presence of P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi decreased the survival rates of adults and nauplii during the 16 days of the experiment. Survival of nauplii decreased to 49% and 48%, respectively, relative to the nearly 80% survival of adults. Among the six stages of nauplii, individuals at NII and NIII were more susceptible to P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi. Lower egg production rates were also observed when copepods were exposed to P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi, and hatching success decreased only with exposure to P. donghaiense. These results suggest that blooms of the two common dinoflagellates may have detrimental effects on the survival of nauplii and the reproduction of C. sinicus, which may pose a major threat to the recruitment of C. sinicus.
Co-infections of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and HIV/AIDS is rare. We report four CE cases that were HIV positive. Three out of the four patients underwent a surgical operation to remove the hydatid cysts in their livers. The operation confirmed that in two of the cases their cysts had ruptured. These patients were given 3 months of albendazole after the operation. Follow-up showed they were remarkably improved in term of their health, although they were still HIV antibody positive 6 months after surgical treatment. Interestingly, the treatment remarkably increased their CD4+ cell population. We showed that surgery is suitable for treating hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HIV/AIDS co-infection.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered 50 years ago as an oncogenic gamma-1 herpesvirus and infects more than 90% of the worldwide adult population. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) poses a serious health problem in southern China and is one of the most common cancers among the Chinese. There is now strong evidence supporting a role for EBV in the pathogenesis of NPC. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), a primary oncoprotein encoded by EBV, alters several functional and oncogenic properties, including transformation, cell death and survival in epithelial cells in NPC. LMP1 may increase protein modification, such as phosphorylation, and initiate aberrant signalling via derailed activation of host adaptor molecules and transcription factors. Here, we summarise the novel features of different domains of LMP1 and several new LMP1-mediated signalling pathways in NPC. When then focus on the potential roles of LMP1 in cancer stem cells, metabolism reprogramming, epigenetic modifications and therapy strategies in NPC.
Previous studies have shown that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts antibacterial, immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of enteral bLF supplementation on intestinal adaptation and barrier function in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Male Sprague–Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomised into three groups (n 10 per group): Sham group (rats submitted to bowel transection and reanastomosis); SBS group (rats submitted to 80 % small-bowel resection); SBS-bLF group (rats submitted to 80 % small-bowel resection plus treatment with bLF (0·5 g/kg per d) by oral administration from day 2 to day 20). Despite similar food intake, both the SBS and SBS-bLF groups exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, but increased villus height and crypt depth and a higher intestinal epithelial cell proliferation index (P< 0·05) when compared with the Sham group. Compared with that in the SBS group, in the SBS-bLF group, bacterial translocation to regional organs was low and intestinal permeability was significantly reduced. The SBS-bLF group also had increased secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations in ileal contents (29·9 (23·8–33·0) ng/ml), when compared with the other two groups having similar sIgA concentrations (17·5 (12·6–29·1) and 19·3 (11·5–27·0) ng/ml, respectively). The relative expression levels of two tight junction (TJ) proteins, occludin and claudin-4, in the SBS-bLF group were significantly higher than those in the SBS group (P< 0·05), but did not exhibit any significant differences when compared with those in the Sham group. In conclusion, enteral bLF supplementation up-regulates small-bowel sIgA concentrations and TJ protein expression and reduces intestinal permeability and could thus support intestinal barrier integrity and protect against bacterial infections in SBS.