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Low level of cardiorespiratory fitness has been recognized as an important independent and modifiable risk factor of increased morbidity and mortality. However, in standard outpatient settings, patients are not routinely screened for fitness and advantages of such testing for the management of type 2 diabetes have not been defined.
To describe the toleration of a fast, simple and practicable fitness test (2-min step-in-place test) by overweight/obese type 2 diabetics and their performance indicated by 2-min step-in-place test score (STS). To study short-term anthropometric, functional and metabolic changes following the implementation of the test in the selected population.
A total of 33 overweight/obese type 2 diabetics underwent, besides routine examination at the outpatient clinic, the fitness test (group A). Patients were asked to increase their regular physical activity with focus on walking without change in diet and chronic medication. Three to four months later, the subjects were tested again. An identical number of age- and sex-matched obese diabetics followed in our outpatient clinic (without fitness testing), was randomly selected from the Hospital Information System (control group B).
All patients subjected to fitness testing completed the protocol successfully. STS score was found to have a considerable range with differences between males and females at the borderline of statistical significance. The data are compliant with lower aerobic endurance of obese diabetics compared with healthy population. Within study period, the tested group presented with improvements in STS (referring especially to the males) as well as in several laboratory parameters of glucose and lipid homeostasis, glomerular function and subclinical inflammation with no reflection in anthropometry. Group B demonstrated no significant change. In conclusion, 2-min step-in-place test is fast, undemanding and well-tolerated by patients and personnel. Following its validation based on cardiopulmonary exercise testing, the test may prove recommendable for screening or self-monitoring purposes.
We prove that convex sets are measure convex and extremal sets are measure extremal provided they are of low Borel complexity. We also present examples showing that the positive results cannot be strengthened.
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