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Nicotine 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate dihydrate is a nicotine salt and can be used as compositions in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4⋅2H2O, are reported [a = 8.424(1) Å, b = 13.179(8) Å, c = 8.591(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 102.073(8)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 932.765(3) Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.256 g⋅cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group.
The microstructure and texture evolution of Ni-5 at%W (Ni5W) alloy substrates were investigated by in situ tensile testing along the rolling direction (RD), transverse direction (TD), and at 45° to the RD (45°-RD), as well as by electron backscatter diffraction characterization. The tensile stress direction had a significant influence on the texture evolution. The cubic texture in the Ni-5 at%W alloy exhibited severe degradation when the tensile angle was 45°-RD. In contrast, the cubic texture was relatively stable under high deformation along the RD or TD. It was found that the slip line system in the 45°-RD specimen was the key to the contrasting behavior. The effect of the tensile testing angle on the cubic texture evolution for Ni–W substrates was investigated, and the corresponding effect on the superconducting properties of coated materials was studied.
A study was conducted to identify whether composted manure and straw amendments [replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer (50% of the total nitrogen application) with composted pig manure, and straw return (all straw from the previous rice crop) combined with chemical fertilizer] compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilizer only, would change the dominant species of wheat-associated weeds as well as influence their growth and seed yield in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system. The study was initiated in 2010, and the treatment effects on the species, density, plant height, shoot biomass, seed yield of dominant weeds and wheat yields were assessed in 2017 and 2018. Fertilization significantly increased the height, density and yield of wheat as well as the shoot biomass of wheat-associated weeds but decreased the weed species number. A total of 17 and 14 weed species were recorded in the experimental wheat fields in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The most dominant weed species were American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald] and catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), which comprised more than 64% of the weed community in all treatments. When the chemical fertilizer application was amended with pig manure compost and straw return, the relative abundance of American sloughgrass significantly decreased, while the relative abundance of catchweed bedstraw significantly increased. The application of the chemical fertilizer-only treatment resulted in increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of American sloughgrass, while the composted manure and straw amendments applied together with chemical fertilizer led to significant increases in the corresponding characteristics of catchweed bedstraw. Consequently, further research on ways to promote greater cropping system diversity will be needed to prevent the selection of weed species that are adapted to a limited suite of crop management practices.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
This paper characterizes the geometry of converging near-elliptic shock waves at a Mach number of 6. The converging shocks are produced by elliptic conical surfaces with shapes made up from adjacent straight generators, each deflected a constant angle from the free-stream direction. Combined shock tunnel experiments and numerical analyses are conducted to depict the evolution of the converging shock waves for several elliptic entry aspect ratios $AR$s (i.e. the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis). It is revealed that the deviation from axial symmetry is amplified as the shock front approaches the centreline, which results in different shock interaction types compared with the axisymmetric case. Three typical shock interaction types are classified depending on various ARs. For a small AR, faster shock strengthening in the major plane dominates, although a Mach reflection (type A) that resembles the axisymmetric flow field is formed. However, for a sufficiently large AR, the shock strengthening is eventually terminated by the intersection of the weaker shocks in the minor plane owing to their smaller off-centre distances, which results in a regular reflection (type B). Between these two interaction patterns, there is a critical AR for which both the shock fronts in the major and minor planes intersect at the centreline coincidentally, and this critical intersection (type C) exhibits an extreme case of a shock front converging to a singular point. This study indicates that deviation from axial symmetry affects the evolution of the shock structures in converging flow.
Lead-free BaTiO3 (BT)-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with the thickness of dielectric layers ~9 μm were successfully fabricated by tape-casting and screen-printing techniques. A single phase of the pseudo-cubic structure was revealed by X-ray diffraction. Backscattered images and energy-dispersive X-ray elemental mapping indicated the high quality of MLCCs without observation of interaction, wrapping, or delamination. The relaxor state was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and temperature-dependent permittivity. Impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures revealed the electrical heterogeneous response for MLCCs with high-resistive electrical components. Improved energy storage performance was obtained by multilayering, comparing with the bulk ceramics. Enhanced recoverable energy density ~6.88 J/cm3 with high efficiency ~90% were realized under an electric field of 820 kV/cm, which is mainly attributed to the intrinsic high-resistivity and relaxor behavior. Furthermore, good temperature (20–85 °C) and frequency stabilities (0.5–50 Hz) were observed in the MLCCs, which are attractive for pulsed power applications.
A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary curcumin (CC) on growth antioxidant responses, fatty acid composition, and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes of large yellow croaker fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four diets (lipid level at 18 %) were formulated with different levels of curcumin (0, 0·02, 0·04 and 0·06 %). The best growth performance was found in the 0·04 % curcumin group, with the body and hepatic lipid levels lower than the control group (0 % CC). The content of TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was the least in the 0·06 % curcumin group. The lowest malondialdehyde and the highest superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the 0·04 % curcumin group. The 0·04 % curcumin group had higher expression of Δ6fad, elovl5 and elovl4 and showed higher hepatic n-6 and n-3 PUFA. Expression of ppara, cpt1, and aco was significantly increased, while expression of srebp1 and fas was dramatically decreased in curcumin groups compared with the control group. Overall, 0·04 % curcumin supplementation could mitigate the negative effects caused by HFD and promote growth via reducing hepatic lipid deposition, improving antioxidant activity and increasing PUFA of large yellow croaker. To conclude, abnormal hepatic lipid deposition was probably due to increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids.
The CoCrNiMox (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2 in molar ratio) medium entropy alloys (MEAs) were fabricated by vacuum arc melting, followed by cold rolling and annealing treatments. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the microstructures. It has been shown that the CoCrNi MEA has a single FCC phase and the Mo-containing MEAs contain (Cr, Mo)-rich σ precipitates. In addition, the Mo addition caused significant grain refinement, due to the fact that the presence of σ phase exerts a strong pinning effect on the grain boundary migration. The hardness testing results indicate an increment in Vickers hardness from 187.5 ± 4.5 Hv of CoCrNi alloy to 309.5 ± 10.3 Hv of CoCrNiMo0.2 alloy. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength also increase from 339 ± 2 to 644 ± 5 MPa and from 810 ± 5 to 1071 ± 17 MPa, respectively, but the elongation drops from 88.4 ± 4.0% to 29.5 ± 7.6%. The grain refinement and the precipitation of σ phase make synergistic contribution to the reinforcement of Mo-containing CoCrNi-based MEAs. The details and explanations in this study may guide the future design and research of the CoCrNi-based quaternary alloys with enhanced properties.
Studies have suggested an association between metabolic and cerebrocardiovascular diseases and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the risk of metabolic and cerebrocardiovascular diseases in the unaffected siblings of patients with MDD remains uncertain. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 22,438 unaffected siblings of patients with MDD and 89,752 age-/sex-matched controls were selected and followed up from 1996 to the end of 2011. Individuals who developed metabolic and cerebrocardiovascular diseases during the follow-up period were identified. Compared with the controls, the unaffected siblings of patients with MDD had a higher prevalence of metabolic diseases, such as hypertension (5.0% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.007), dyslipidemia (5.6% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001), and obesity (1.7% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.028), and cerebrocardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke (0.6% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.005) and ischemic heart disease (2.1% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the unaffected siblings of patients with MDD were more likely to develop hypertension, dyslipidemia, ischemic stroke, and ischemic heart diseases during the follow-up period than the controls. Our study revealed a familial coaggregation between MDD and metabolic and cerebrocardiovascular diseases. Additional studies are required to investigate the shared pathophysiology of MDD and metabolic and cerebrocardiovascular diseases.
Family coaggregation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia have been presented in previous studies. The shared genetic and environmental factors among psychiatric disorders remain elusive.
This nationwide population-based study examined familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of individuals with ASD. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 26 667 individuals with ASD and 67 998 FDRs of individuals with ASD. The cohort was matched in 1:4 ratio to 271 992 controls. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ADHD, ASD, BD, MDD and schizophrenia were assessed among FDRs of individuals with ASD and ASD with intellectual disability (ASD-ID).
FDRs of individuals with ASD have higher RRs of major psychiatric disorders compared with controls: ASD 17.46 (CI 15.50–19.67), ADHD 3.94 (CI 3.72–4.17), schizophrenia 3.05 (CI 2.74–3.40), BD 2.22 (CI 1.98–2.48) and MDD 1.88 (CI 1.76–2.00). Higher RRs of schizophrenia (4.47, CI 3.95–5.06) and ASD (18.54, CI 16.18–21.23) were observed in FDRs of individuals with both ASD-ID, compared with ASD only.
The risk for major psychiatric disorders was consistently elevated across all types of FDRs of individuals with ASD. FDRs of individuals with ASD-ID are at further higher risk for ASD and schizophrenia. Our results provide leads for future investigation of shared etiologic pathways of ASD, ID and major psychiatric disorders and highlight the importance of mental health care delivered to at-risk families for early diagnoses and interventions.
Our study aimed to systematically analyse the risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe disease. An electronic search in eight databases to identify studies describing severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 3 April 2020. In the end, we meta-analysed 40 studies involving 5872 COVID-19 patients. The average age was higher in severe COVID-19 patients (weighted mean difference; WMD = 10.69, 95%CI 7.83–13.54). Patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (WMD = −18.63, 95%CI −30.86 to −6.40) and lymphocyte count (WMD = −0.35, 95%CI −0.41 to −0.30) but higher C-reactive protein (CRP; WMD = 42.7, 95%CI 31.12–54.28), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; WMD = 137.4, 95%CI 105.5–169.3), white blood cell count（WBC), procalcitonin（PCT）, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine（Cr）. Similarly, patients who died showed significantly higher WBC, D-dimer, ALT, AST and Cr but similar platelet count and LDH as patients who survived. These results indicate that older age, low platelet count, lymphopenia, elevated levels of LDH, ALT, AST, PCT, Cr and D-dimer are associated with severity of COVID-19 and thus could be used as early identification or even prediction of disease progression.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were classified into four clinical stages (uncomplicated illness, mild, severe and critical pneumonia) depending on disease severity. We aim to investigate the corresponding clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics between different clinical stages. A retrospective, single-centre study of 101 confirmed patients with COVID-19 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2 January to 28 January 2020 was enrolled; follow-up endpoint was on 8 February 2020. Clinical data were collected and compared during the course of illness. The median age of the 101 patients was 51.0 years and 33.6% were medical staff. Fever (68%), cough (50%) and fatigue (23%) are the most common symptoms. About 26% patients underwent the mechanical ventilation and 98% patients were treated with antibiotics. Thirty-seven per cent patients were cured and 11 died. On admission, the number of patients with uncomplicated illness, mild, severe and critical pneumonia were 2 [2%], 86 [85%], 11 [11%] and 2 [2%]. Forty-four of the 86 mild pneumonia progressed to severe illness within 4 days, with nine patients worsened due to critical pneumonia within 4 days. Two of the 11 severe patients improved to mild condition while three others deteriorated. Significant differences were observed among groups of different clinical stages in numbers of influenced pulmonary segments (6 vs. 12 vs. 17, P < 0.001). A significantly upward trend was witnessed in ground-glass opacities overlapped with striped shadows (33% vs. 42% vs. 55% vs. 80%, P < 0.001), while pure ground-glass opacities gradually decreased as disease progressed (45% vs. 35% vs. 24% vs. 13%, P < 0.001) within 12 days. Lymphocytes, prealbumin and albumin showed a downtrend as disease progressed from mild to severe or critical condition, an uptrend was found in white blood cells, C-reactive protein, neutrophils and lactate dehydrogenase. The proportions of serum amyloid A > 300 mg/l in mild, severe and critical conditions were 18%, 46% and 71%, respectively.
Advanced Ni8W/Ni12W/Ni8W alloy composite substrates used in YBCO-coated conductors with a strong cube texture and high yield strength have been fabricated, and a CeO2 buffer layer film was successfully deposited on the composite substrates. Through in situ tensile testing coupled with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the stability of the cube texture of Ni8W/Ni12W/Ni8W alloy composite substrates has been investigated. The stress–strain curve shows that the yield strength (at 0.2% strain) of the composite substrates exceeds 250 Mpa. The orientation of grains and boundaries on the surface of the substrates was almost unchanged, while the strain exceeds 0.2%, which indicated that the composite substrates are adequate for depositing buffer layers and YBCO layers by the reel-to-reel process.
The Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene has been identified as a top risk gene for schizophrenia in several large-scale genome-wide association studies. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) of this gene is the most significant expression quantitative trait locus, but its role in brain activity in vivo is still unknown.
We first performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan of 101 healthy subjects during a memory span task, trained all subjects on an adaptive memory span task for 1 month, and finally performed another fMRI scan after the training. After excluding subjects with excessive head movements for one or more scanning sessions, data from 93 subjects were included in the final analyses.
The VNTR was significantly associated with both baseline brain activation and training-induced changes in multiple regions including the prefrontal cortex and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, it was associated with baseline brain activation in the striatum and the parietal cortex. All these results were corrected based on the family-wise error rate method across the whole brain at the peak level.
This study sheds light on the role of AS3MT gene variants in neural plasticity related to memory span training.
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuro- psychiatric disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics lasting more than one year. An immune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for PANDAS (Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection). PANDAS may offer a new way to explore the pathogens of GTS. IL-1Ra86bp,IL-1βexon5 gene Polymorphism and Cognitive Function are studied in 86 Children with Tourette's Syndrome.
In the present study, we genotyped a large multiplex sample of GTS affected children for polymorphisms in IL-1Ra86bp,IL-1βexon5 genes. Associations were tested by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). 86 Han Chinese children with GTS were tested using a set of neuropsychological test(Stroop test, trail making test, verbal fluency test, modified Wisconsin Card sorting test) and compared with 51 healthy control group to understand the relationship between cognitive deficits and genetics.
No evidence for transmission disequilibrium was found for polymorphisms of IL-1 Ra86bp,IL-1 βexon5 gene in this GTS sample. The frequency of 410bp/240bp genotype and 240bp allele in combined ADHD were significantly different from GTS alone. Compared with normal children, The GTS group showed impairment on almost all psychological measures. No evidence show significantly difference among IL-1Ra86bp, IL-1βexon5 gene Polymorphism and Cognitive Function.
For the GTS+ADHD group, the 240bp allele of IL-1Ra gene Polymorphism perhaps is another risk factor.GTS patient has memory, attention and executive function defect, these defects may have something to do with the prefrontal dopamine disfunction.
Impaired executive function has been proposed as a trait marker for adult bipolar disorder. However, similar impairments in children bipolar disorder have not been yet documented. Here,we assessed executive function in 21 children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
21 children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and 21 demographically matched healthy participants completed a standardized WCST test.
The operation result in children with bipolar disorder did not differ from that in controls. Severity of mood symptomatology was not associated with WCST performance in any bipolar subtype.
Findings suggest that executive function in children bipolar disorder are not similar to those seen in the adult form of the illness. Compares with the adult, the children bipolar disorder possibly may have different pathogenesis.
Exosomes derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are nanovesicles and are involved in the occurrence and development of HCC, they also serve as important carriers and drug targets of nanodrug delivery systems. The external shape and internal structure of exosomes are important indexes of identification, and isolated intact morphology is crucial to biological function integrity. However, given their susceptibility to various influencing factors, the external shape and internal structure of exosomes derived from HCC cells remain incompletely studied. In this study, exosomes purified from HCC cells were isolated at different centrifugation speeds and examined via multiple electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The results demonstrate that exosomes possess a nearly spherical shape and bilipid membranous vesicle with a concave cavity structure containing electron-dense and coated vesicles, suggesting the possible existence of subpopulations of exosomes with specific functions. The exosomes isolated at ultracentrifugation (UC) speed (≥110,000×g) presented irregular and diverse external morphologies, indicating the effect on the integrity of the exosomes. Transforming growth factor signaling bioactive substances (TGF-β1, S100A8, and S100A9) can be found in exosomes by performing Western blotting, showing that the internal content is associated with metastasis of HCC. These findings show that EMelectron microscopy and UC speed can affect exosome characteristics, including external shape, internal structure, and content of bioactive substances. The electron-dense and coated vesicles that had been discovered in exosomes might become new additional morphological features, which could help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and widen our understanding of exosome morphology.
Previous studies of amyloid diseases reported that the aggregating proteins share a similar conserved peptide sequence which can form the cross-β-sheet-containing nanostructures like nanofilaments. The template-assisted self-assembly (TASA) of peptides on inorganic substrates with different hydrophilicity could be an alternative approach to shed light on the fibrillization mechanism of proteins/peptides in vivo. To figure out the effect of interfaces on amyloid aggregation, we herein employed in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the self-assembling of a Parkinson disease-related core peptide sequence (TGV-9) on a hydrophobic liquid–solid interface via real-time observation of the dynamic fibrillization process. The results show that TGV-9 forms one-dimensional nanostructures on the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with three preferred growth orientations, which are consistent with the atomic lattice of HOPG, indicating an epitaxial growth or TASA. Conversely, the nanostructures formed in bulk solution can be free-standing nanofilaments, and the fibrillization mechanism is different from that on HOPG. These results could not only deepen the understanding of the protein/peptide aggregation mechanism but also benefit for the early diagnosis and clinic treatment of related diseases.
To explore whether different polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentrations affect the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a prospective study was conducted for 194 couples undergoing 210 ICSI therapy cycles. These cycles were divided into three groups (10, 7 and 5% groups) using the corresponding concentration of PVP for sperm immobilization. The main outcome measures were analyzed. Results indicated that, with a decrease in PVP concentrations, all of the main outcome measures increased. In particular, the high-quality cleavage embryo rate in the 7% group was significantly lower than in the 5% group (P < 0.01), and the cleavage, high-quality cleavage embryo, and high-quality blastocyst rates in the 5% group were significantly higher than those in the 10% group (all P < 0.001). For high-/intermediate-quality semen, all of the main outcome measures were significantly increased with 5% PVP. For the poor-quality semen, only the high-quality cleavage embryo and high-quality blastocyst rates were significantly higher in the 5% group. Therefore, lowering PVP concentrations greatly promoted the development of embryos in ICSI cycles, with an optimal concentration of 5% for ICSI.