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The edge surface warping defect seriously affect the surface quality of strips. In this paper, a technology for diagnosis of warping defects in hot-rolled strip based on data-driven methods is studied. Based on the mechanism analysis of the warping defects, the process parameters affecting the warping defects were sorted out and used as the original input parameters of the defect diagnosis model. Firstly, a diagnostic model that combines the deep belief network and contribution plots of each dimensionality reduction layer is proposed. The deep belief network that integrates each dimensionality reduction layer can predict product defects more accurately and stably than the traditional deep belief network. Meanwhile, on the basis of the pre-judgment model, the method of contribution plot is further introduced to trace the defects, and the comprehensive diagnosis function of model pre-judgment and traceability is realized. Finally, collected the production data from a hot rolling production line for a period of time. Tested the model and predicted a hit rate of 85%. The main influencing factors of edge surface warping defects were determined that the rate of defect decrease with the increase of furnace temperature. When the heating temperature of the second stage of the heating furnace is higher than 1160°C, the incidence of defects is significantly reduced. Defect rate is relatively low within 240min of total furnace time. With the first and third pass phosphorus removal equipment turned on, the incidence of defects was relatively low.
Flexibility is one of the important mechanical performance parameters of stent. The flexibility of tapered stents, especially self-expanding tapered stents, remains unknown. In this study, we developed a new selfexpanding tapered stent for tapered arteries and performed a numerical investigation of stent flexibility by using finite element method. The effect of stent design parameters, including taper and link space width, on stent flexibility was studied. The flexibility of the proposed stent was also compared with that of traditional cylindrical stents. Results show that the tapered stent is more flexible than the traditional cylindrical stent. Furthermore, the flexibility of the tapered stent increases with increasing stent taper and stent link space width. The increase in the stent link space width can contribute to the reduction in the peak stress. Therefore, tapered stents with high link space width will improve the stent flexibility. This work provides useful information for improvement of stent design and clinical selection.
Social attention ability is crucial for human adaptive social behaviors and interpersonal communications, and the malfunction of which has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by striking social deficits.
Using a classical twin design, the current study investigated the genetic contribution to individual variation in social and non-social attention abilities, and further probed their potential genetic linkage. Moreover, individual autistic traits were further measured in an independent group of non-twin participants to examine the hypothetical link between the core social attention ability and ASD.
We found reliable genetic influences on the social attentional effects induced by two distinct cues (eye gaze and walking direction), with 91% of their covariance accounted for by common genetic effects. However, no evidence of heritability or shared genetic effects was observed for the attentional effect directed by a non-social cue (i.e. arrow direction) and its correlation with the social attention ability. Remarkably, one's autistic traits could well predict his/her heritable core social attention ability extracted from the conventional social attentional effect.
These findings together suggest that human social attention ability is supported by unique genetic mechanisms that can be shared across different social, but not non-social, processing. Moreover, they also encourage the identification of ‘social attention genes’ and highlight the critical role of the core human social attention ability in seeking the endophenotypes of social cognitive disorders including ASD.
The trace elements in quartz, Al and Ti, contain considerable information about mineral genesis, and determining their concentrations is of great importance in geology. Electron probe microanalysis has the advantages of non-destructive testing and high spatial resolution; however, it is a challenge to improve the accuracy and precision of trace element detection using this method. The important factors affecting accuracy include the fragility of quartz lattices at high beam currents and the methods used to determine the background. In this paper, the peaks of Al-Kα and Ti-Kα, and their backgrounds, were found to exhibit intensity variations at high beam currents and small beam diameters; therefore, it is necessary to select a large beam diameter (up to 20 µm) to avoid variations in intensity at high currents (500 nA). For background determination of Al, a multipoint background method is proposed to determine the background value, which greatly improves the accuracy of the results. For Ti, the choice of background measurement does not affect the result. In addition, it is verified that the background obtained from other quartz samples can be used as the background of an unknown quartz sample, which reduces the analysis time and minimizes sample damage.
To identify the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its determinants among adolescents more than 4 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
Adolescents (1,125 total) from 2 junior high schools in areas affected by the catastrophic earthquake were followed up for 3 years. The self-rating PTSD scale based on the Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) and the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders, 2nd Edition, Revised (CCMD-2-R) was collected at 53 months, and determinant data were collected repeatedly. Logistic regression was used for a determinants analysis.
The prevalence of overall PTSD was 23.4% among the sample. The risk factors for PTSD were older age (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.20~1.92), and death or injury of a family member in the earthquake (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.09~2.37). Adolescents who had moderate-to-severe common mental health problems were more likely to have PTSD symptoms, with ORs from 3.98 to 17.67 (All P<0.05). Self-esteem remained a protective factor for PTSD regardless of age, whereas positive coping was a protective factor for PTSD when adolescents were older.
PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors of a catastrophic earthquake seemed to persist over time. Long-term interventions are needed to alleviate PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:414-418)
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
More than 200 molecular clouds were newly found distributed beyond the Outer arm in the extreme outer Galaxy (EOG) region by MWISP. Those MCs roughly following the HI′s distribution well delineate the outermost spiral structure (the Outer Scutum-Centaurus arm) and warp of our Galaxy. Besides, those MCs show different σv-Radius relation and exhibit higher value of αvir than MCs in the inner Galaxy.
The ordering of polarization field of inhomogeneous ferroelectric systems were investigated. We found that these systems exhibit rather complex polarization ordering behaviors with the coexistence of polar and toroidal ordering, and particularly, a novel and tunable polar-toroidal phase transformation under external mechanical, electrical or thermal fields. Accompanying with this polar-toroidal phase transformation, there is a large change of polarization and strain. As a result, large eletromechanical and thermomechanical performance can be achieved in these systems. The polar/toroidal phase boundaries can be regarded a new kind of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The polar-toroidal phase transformation in nanoscale ferroelectric systems should provide us a novel strategy to develop energy conversion nanodevices.
The improved laser-to-pedestal contrast ratio enabled by current high-power laser pulse cleaning techniques allows the fine features of the target survive before the main laser pulse arrives. We propose to introduce the nano-fabrication technologies into laser–plasma interaction to explore the novel effects of micro-structures. We found out that not only laser-driven particle sources but also the laser pulse itself can be manipulated by specifically designed micro-cylinder and -tube targets, respectively. The proposal was supported by full-3D particle-in-cell simulations and successful proof-of-principle experiments for the first time. We believe this would open a way to manipulate relativistic laser–plasma interaction at the micro-size level.
The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.
In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG.
Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS.
We studied 2468 women aged 18–80 years from the CHNS.
We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=−0·68; 95 % CI −1·22, −0·14; P<0·05). The snack pattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; P<0·05). The Western pattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; P<0·01) and LDL-C (β=2·26; 95 % CI 0·86, 3·66; P<0·01).
We identified three dietary patterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.
The present study aimed to explore the associations between food away-from-home (FAFH) consumption and body weight outcomes among Chinese adults.
FAFH was defined as food prepared at restaurants and the percentage of energy from FAFH was calculated. Measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as body weight outcomes. Quantile regression models for BMI and WC were performed separately by gender.
Information on demographic, socio-economic, diet and health parameters at individual, household and community levels was collected in twelve provinces of China.
A cross-sectional sample of 7738 non-pregnant individuals aged 18–60 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011 was analysed.
For males, quantile regression models showed that percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0·01, 0·01, 0·01, 0·02, 0·02 and 0·03 kg/m2 at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile, and an increase in WC of 0·04, 0·06, 0·06, 0·04, 0·06, 0·05 and 0·07 cm at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile. For females, percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with 0·01, 0·01, 0·01 and 0·02 kg/m2 increase in BMI at the 10th, 25th, 90th and 95th quantile, and with 0·05, 0·04, 0·03 and 0·03 cm increase in WC at the 5th, 10th, 25th and 75th quantile.
Our findings suggest that FAFH consumption is relatively more important for BMI and WC among males rather than females in China. Public health initiatives are needed to encourage Chinese adults to make healthy food choices when eating out.
On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.
Boulders are ubiquitous on the surfaces of asteroids and their spatial and size distributions provide information for the geological evolution and collisional history of parent bodies. We identify more than 200 boulders on near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis based on images obtained by Chang'e-2 flyby. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) gives a power-index of −4.4 ± 0.1, which is clearly steeper than those of boulders on Itokawa and Eros, indicating much high degree of fragmentation. Correlation analyses with craters suggest that most boulders cannot solely be produced as products of cratering, but are probably survived fragments from the parent body of Toutatis, accreted after its breakup. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, but owns a different preservation state of boulders.
Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.
Charged particle diagnostics is one of the required techniques for implosion areal density diagnostics at the SG-III facility. Several proton spectrometers are under development, and some preliminary areal density diagnostics have been carried out. The response of the key detector, CR39, to charged particles was investigated in detail. A new track profile simulation code based on a semi-empirical model was developed. The energy response of the CR39 detector was calibrated with the accelerator protons and alphas from a 241Am source. A proton spectrometer based on the filtered CR39 detector was developed, and D–D primary proton measurements were implemented. A step range filter spectrometer was developed, and preliminary areal density diagnostics was carried out. A wedged range filter spectrometer array made of Si with a higher resolution was designed and developed at the SG-III facility. A particle response simulation code by the Monte Carlo method and a spectra unfolding code were developed. The capability was evaluated in detail by simulations.
We present gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) could be used not only for stimuli-responsive optical sensors but also for the quantification of radical compounds when these nanoparticles are suitably combined with polymeric materials. When Au NPs are assembled 2-dimensionally on the surface of hydrogel NPs which respond to temperatures, the hybrid NPs displayed thermoreversible multiple color switching. Accordingly, optical bandwidths of the hybrid NPs are reversibly changed with temperatures: with hybrid NPs assembled with 51 nm Au NPs, prominent optical signals are recorded at 900 nm at 50 °C while most of extinction signals are shown below 600 nm at room temperatures. In addition, we demonstrate the modification of Ag NPs’ surfaces (nanocubes and nanospheres) with polyelectrolytes (either positive or negative) could extend the quantifiable detection ranges of radical compounds. Through the surface modification of Ag NPs, the polyelectrolytes protect the Ag NPs by probably either retarding (forming diffusion barriers) or preventing (blocking/entrapping/scavenging) the arrival of radicals to Ag NPs or both. The roles of the polyelectrolytes are demonstrated by using radical compounds produced from tetrahydrofuran and H2O2. From the results, we could obtain calibration curves for the wide-range quantification of radical compounds.
Lymphatic stomata are small openings of lymphatic capillaries on the surface of the mesothelium that lines the serous cavity and have the function of active absorption. They play an important role in physiological and pathological conditions. The cavity of the tunica vaginalis is a typical serous cavity of the testis, but the lymphatic stomata of the tunica vaginalis of humans have never been reported. Here, we studied their ultrastructure by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The submesothelial connective tissue with foramina was investigated after the mesothelial cells were digested using NaOH solution. We found the lymphatic stomata in cuboidal mesothelial cell regions of the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis of humans with a diameter of about 1–2 μm. Sometimes, closed lymphatic stomata could be observed. Our study is the first to report the existence of lymphatic stomata of the tunica vaginalis of humans. We found that the tunica vaginalis cavity is connected with the lymphatic system through the stomata, which might provide a morphological basis for the drainage of hydrocele and tumor metastasis of the tunica vaginalis of humans.