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Over the centuries, Spanish historiography has attached great importance to the wars that Octavian launched at the start of the last third of the 1st c. B.C. against the population in the north of the Iberian peninsula. In this way he intended to bring an end to the long conquest of Iberia that had begun two centuries earlier in the hegemonic struggle with Carthage. Although the wars previously attracted the attention of European scholars, today they play little part in the historiography of the Early Roman Empire and even less in the biographies of Augustus, who suffered some of his worst military fortunes in this war, putting his very life in danger (Suet., Aug. 29.3 and 81.1; Hor., Carm. 3.14; Dio 53.25.5-7; Oros. 6.21.4). Even Departments of Ancient History in Spanish universities have failed to progress beyond well-worn exegesis of the written sources. This is because until just two decades ago all the information came from two historical sources: Florus and Orosius, on the one hand, and Dio Cassius, on the other (the relevant books of Livy being lost). Although they stress the importance of the conflict, these sources are excessively laconic; they have also been subjected to erudite speculations about place-names that have turned the military campaigns into a series of historiographic fictions.1
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients on the target coverage when using 6 MV beams-VMAT therapy and to propose strategies that allow us to evaluate the dose or correct it by normalization without having to perform a new simulation.
Methods and materials:
Ten patients of high-risk prostate cancer were chosen for the study. All test plans were delivered using the same isocenter and monitor units as the original plan and compared against the original unedited plan. The expansion and contraction of body contours due to size changes was mimicked by increasing and decreasing the body contour with depths of −2, −1·5, …, 1·5, 2 cm, in the anterior, and both lateral directions of the patient. A total of 90 plans were evaluated, 9 for each patient. Dose-volume histogram statistics were extracted from each plan and normalized to prescription dose.
Weight changes resulted in considerable dose modifications to the target and critical structures. Plans were found to be varied with 2·9% ± 0·3% per cm SSD change for VMAT treatment with a correlation index close to one. Therefore, doses variations were linear to the changes of depth. Gamma index evaluation was performed for the 10 renormalized plans. All of them passed criteria of 3%/3 mm in at least 98.2% of points. Eight of them passed criteria in 99% points. Gamma index 4%/4 mm passed 100% points in all patients for the chosen region of interest.
The dosimetry estimation presented in this study shows important data for the radiation oncology staff to justify whether a CT rescan is necessary or not when a patient experiences weight changes during treatment. Based on the results of our study, discrepancies between real dose and planned dose were >5% for 1·7 cm of difference in external contour in the anterior and both lateral directions of the patient.
The aim of this study was to assess the associations of intake of different types of meat with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in healthy young men. This cross-sectional study included 206 men, 18–23 years, from Southern Spain. All men completed a validated FFQ, underwent a physical examination, and provided blood and semen samples. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones. Total meat intake was unrelated to semen quality or reproductive hormone levels. When subgroups of meat were separately considered, however, shellfish intake was positively related to progressive motility. The adjusted percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa for men in increasing quartiles of shellfish intake were 45·2, 42·0, 49·4 and 53·2 % with a significant linear trend across quartiles (Ptrend≤0·001). In contrast, men who consumed organ meats had significantly lower progressive sperm motility (51·5 v. 42·8 %; P = 0·001) and higher luteinising hormone levels (4·0 v. 4·6 IU/l; P = 0·03) compared with men who did not consume organ meats. Intake of shellfish and organ meats was low in this population, however. Given the scarcity of data on the relation between specific types of meat with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels, additional research is needed to confirm or refute these findings.
Archaeological investigations at Monte Bernorio (northern Spain) and its surroundings are yielding exciting new evidence for the destruction of the Iron Age oppidum by the Roman military and the subsequent Roman occupation of the area.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
The objective was to highlight the role of supplementary feeding on resilience and resistance of browsing small ruminants against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. GIN infections have a negative impact on productivity of browsing Criollo kids especially during the wet season of Yucátan. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the threat of GIN infectivity in the native vegetation available for browsing goats. Control of GIN in browsing ruminants is threatened by the emergence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes strains in the local flocks. Browsing trials with kids and lambs have shown that supplementary feeding (100–108g/day) improved resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against GIN. Supplements used successfully include sorghum:soybean meal (74:26 respectively), maize:soybean meal (74:26) and maize only (108g/day). The later result showed that animals might benefit from supplementation with rumen fermentable energy that could improve utilization of available browsing legumes by the goats. Wet season trials showed that, in spite of supplementation, infected animals have lower productivity compared to non-infected animals. However, the combined use of supplementation and copper oxide wire particles or tactic anthelmintic treatment, can improve growth rate of infected kids to maximum production levels. Short-term supplementation strategies have shown to be less effective than long-term strategies in achieving better resilience against GIN in kids. Lambs are more resistant but less resilient against GIN infections than kids. Improved resistance of lambs seemed to require more nutrients than in goats. In conclusion, supplementary feeding can play an important role in improving both resilience and resistance of growing small ruminants in the tropics but it can be further improved through the complementary use of other strategies leading to a more sustainable integrated parasite control strategy.
The northern regions of the Iberian Peninsula have traditionally been excluded in international debates on Iron Age urbanisation. However, the hillforts and oppida of the Cantabrian area show considerable similarities to the situation found in wide parts of Temperate Europe during the 1st millennium bc. One of the most important centres is the oppidum of Monte Bernorio, which was occupied between the Late Bronze Age and the Roman Conquest. This paper offers a first overview of the archaeological fieldwork carried out over the last decade, which has revealed the existence of an extremely complex and extensive system of multivallate fortifications enclosing an area of about 90 ha. Therefore, it is one of the largest Iron Age fortified sites of the whole of the Iberian Peninsula. The material culture recovered at the settlement – including large amounts of pottery, animal remains, metal objects, and glass beads – testifies both local production and long-distance networks. Moreover, the recovery of a tessera hospitalis with written text constitutes a prime example of the existence of legally sanctioned ‘citizenship rights’ among the pre-Roman communities of the Cantabrian area. Finally, recent discoveries at the oppidum itself and at the nearby Roman military camp of El Castillejo indicate a siege and conquest by the Roman army in the course of the Cantabrian Wars led by Emperor Augustus in the 20s BC. The evidence points towards the existence of one of the major battlefields of Rome’s imperial expansion in the West.
We present the first submillimetric line survey of extragalactic sources carried out by APEX. The surveys cover the 0.8 mm atmospheric window from 270 to 370GHz toward NGC253, NGC4945 and Arp220. We found in NGC 253, 150 transitions of 26 molecules. For NGC 4945, 136 transitions of 24 molecules, and 64 transitions of 17 molecules for Arp 220. Column densities and rotation temperatures have been determinate using the Local Thermodinamical Equilibrium(LTE) line profile simulation and fitting in the MADCUBA IJ software. The differences found in ratios between the Galactic Center and the starburst galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest that the gas is less processed in the latter than in the Galactic Center. The high 18O/17O ratios in the galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest also material less processed in the nuclei of these galaxies than in the Galactic Center. This is consistent with the claim that 17O is a more representative primary product than 18O in stellar nucleosynthesis (Wilson and Rood 1994); Also, we did a Multitransitions study of H3O+ at 307GHz, 364GHz, 388GHz and 396GHz. From our non-LTE analysis of H3O+ in NGC253 with RADEX we found that the collisional excitation can not explain the observed intensity of the ortho 396 GHz line. Excitation by radiation from the dust in the Far-IR can roughly explain the observations if the H2 densities are relatively low. From the derived H3O+ column densities we conclude that the chemistry of this molecule is dominated by ionization produce by the starburst in NGC253 (UV radiation from the O stars) and Arp 220 (cosmic rays from the supernovae) and likely from the AGN in NGC4549 (X-rays ); Finally, we report, for the first time, the tentative detection of the molecular ion HCNH+ (precursor of HCN and HNC) toward a galaxy, NGC4945, abundance explain the claimed enhancement of HCN abundance in the AGN, due to the enhancement of the ionization rate by X-rays. The abundance is much larger than the Galactic center of the Milky Way.
Dementia is a significant public health problem. One non-pharmacological therapy that has shown its effectiveness is reminiscence, which is a psychological intervention designed to address issues of particular relevance to older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of an integrative reminiscence program in elderly people with dementia.
A quasi-experimental design and purposeful sampling were conducted at two retirement homes. Forty-two elderly adults with dementia were studied to measure the effect of the therapy (23 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group). The treatment group activity was held in 10 sessions.
The treatment group significantly improved their depressive symptoms and self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, and environmental mastery.
This study provides support for the effectiveness of integrative reminiscence therapy (RT) as an intervention in people with dementia, especially in reducing depressive symptoms and improving psychological well-being, with the therapy being effective on personal and emotional variables.
In this work we present high resolution spectroscopic data of the giant star-forming region of N11, obtained with the GIRAFFE instrument at the Very Large Telescope. By using this data set, we find that most of the Hα emission lines profiles in this complex can be fitted by a single Gaussian, however, multiple emission line profiles can be observed in the central region of N11. By adding all the spectra, we derive the integrated Hα profile of this complex, which displays a width (σ) of about 12 km s−1 (corrected by instrumental and thermal width). We find that a single Gaussian fit on the integrated Hα profile leaves remaining wings, which can be fitted by a secondary broad Gaussian component. In addition, we find high velocity features, which spatially correlate with soft diffuse X-ray emission.
This study examines consistency between compensation systems and corporate performance. The main purpose is to analyse how the performance has affected the short-term executive pay in Spanish banking system during the period 2004–2008. The main results reveal that pay-performance sensitivity is asymmetrical regarding the sign of the variation of the performance, since the pay-performance sensitivity is greater when the variation of the results is positive than when the variation of the results is negative. This finding is consistent with the managerial power theory and calls into question the role of the pay-performance incentives to align interest of executives and shareholders.
During the excavations made at a burial of the post-Classic Mayan period (1220-1521 A.D.) in the pyramid number 2 of the pre-Hispanic site of Lagartero, Chiapas, Mexico, a set of four small metallic artifacts depicting reptile’s heads, were recovered. The objects were in poor conservation conditions and were taken to the Metal Conservation Laboratory of the National School of Conservation (ENCRyM- INAH) for suitable cleaning and conservation treatments.
Analyses allowed identifying important technological features such as gilding remains. The analytical techniques included optical microscopy followed by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), and Scanning Electron Microscope-coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (MEB-EDS). For the elemental depth profile a combined Particle X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (PIXE–RBS) analysis was carried out.
The results indicate that the objects are made of a copper alloy, and then gilded probably using electrochemical replacement gilding (thickness has less than 1 μm). This technology has been observed in other metallic objects recovered from the Chichen-Itza Cenote in Yucatan, but it was not available in Mesoamerican areas so far. So, it could imply that these artifacts might have been imported from South American areas.
The structural integrity of nuclear fuel cladding is affected by the precipitation of hydrides during operation, which may embrittle the cladding. The aim of this work is to obtain the mechanical and fracture properties of the cladding as a function of the hydrogen content and testing temperature. To this end, the embrittlement caused by circumferential hydrides was simulated on unirradiated fuel cladding samples in the laboratory. The structural integrity of the cladding was assessed at different temperatures (20, 135 and 300ºC), by using the ring compression test. The mechanical properties and the fracture energy were calculated from the experimental load vs. displacement curves, by means of a finite element model which incorporates the cohesive crack model.
The Deep Geological Repository (DGR) is currently the most accepted management option for the isolation of high level radioactive wastes. The DGR is based on a multibarrier system, which will limit releases of mobile radionuclides to the biosphere. In the design of the repository the spent fuel is encapsulated in canisters of carbon-steel. The space between the canister and the host geological formation will be filled with bentonite buffer clay. Under the prevailing conditions in a DGR, both localized and generalized corrosion phenomena are possible.
Corrosion of the canister will result in formation of solid and gaseous corrosion products, which can influence the behaviour of both the canister and the bentonite. Many studies have been carried out in order to improve the knowledge on the reactivity of these barriers. Most of them have focused on the mineralogical alteration of the bentonite as a function of temperature, time, iron/clay and liquid/rock ratio in batch conditions. The aim of this study is to provide experimental evidences, at repository conditions, on chemical and mineralogical changes during the canister-compacted bentonite interaction: determination of secondary minerals and their alteration reactions, the advance of the corrosion front in the compacted bentonite, and changes in porosity, permeability and cation exchange capacity.
A new technique, based on Optical Methods, has been tested for the evaluation of the lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, a corrosive substance frequently used in heat pumps. Those solutions have large oxidizing capabilities. This technique avoids the direct contact between the electrodes and the LiBr aqueous solution within a thermodynamic absorption cycle. The viability of this technique in a potential commercial device, resides on its capability to detect working fluid concentrations within a temperature range from 25 °C up to 70 °C, those limiting temperature values correspond to the operating wavelengths of 1.33 μm and 1.55 μm, respectively. Our system determines the correlation among the signal and temperature data, for various concentrations, between 49 and 58 mass percentages. This function of two variables is represented as a surface with the transmittance, concentration and temperature as parameters and wavelength as reference. We discuss the adequate parameters characterization used in this technique.
Zinalco alloy (Zn-21mass%Al-2mass%Cu) specimens were deformed superplastically with a strain rate (ε) of 1×10-3 s-1 at homologous temperature (TH) of 0.68 (5 ). It was observed neck formation that indicate nonhomegeneus deformation. Grain size and grain boundaries misorientation changes, due superplastic deformation, were characterized by Orientation Imagining Microscopy (OIM) technique. It was studied three regions in deformed specimens and the results were compared with the results for a specimen without deformation. Average grain size of 1 mm was observed in non-deformed specimen and a fraction of 82% for grain boundary misorientation angles with a grain boundaries angles between 15° and 55° was found. For deformed specimen, the fraction of angles between 15° and 55° was decreced to average value of 75% and fractions of low angle (<5°) and high angle (>55°) misorientations were 10% and 15% respectively. The grain size and high fraction of grain boundary misorientation angles between 15° and 55° observed in the alloy without deformation, are favorable for grain rotation and grain boundary sliding (GBS) procces. The changes observed in the fraction of favorable grain boundary angles during superplastic deformation, shown that the superplastic capacity of Zinalco was reduced with the deformation.
Group IV nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention because of their potential applications in optoelectronics and nanodevices. Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used to characterize nanostructures since it provides non destructive information about their size, by the adequate modeling of the phonon confinement effect. However, the Raman spectrum is also sensitive to other factors, as stress and temperature, which can mix with the size effects borrowing the interpretation of the Raman spectrum. We present herein an analysis of the Raman spectra obtained for Si nanowires; the influence of the excitation conditions and the heat dissipation media are discussed in order to optimize the experimental conditions for reliable spectra acquisition and interpretation.
In this paper we use a dynamic general equilibrium growth model to quantify the contribution to productivity growth from different technological sources in the three leading economies of the world: Germany, Japan, and the United States. The sources of technology are classified into neutral progress and investment-specific progress. The latter can be split into two different types of equipment: information and communication technologies (ICT) and non-ICT equipment. We find that in the long run, neutral technological change is the main source of productivity growth in Germany and Japan. For the United States, the main source of productivity growth arises from investment-specific technological change, mainly associated with ICT. We also find that a non-negligible part of productivity growth in the three countries has been due to the technology specific to non-ICT equipment.