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We evaluated the effects of fermentation time and acid casein content on the microbial rennet obtained by solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as the carbon source. The experiments used two fermentation times (72 and 96 h), while acid casein content was 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g. Rennet strength from eight enzymatic extracts was measured using pasteurized whole milk. Rennet strength of samples from 72 h of fermentation showed an increase when acid casein content increased. The rennet strength increased at 96 h of fermentation with increasing amount of casein (up to 2.5 g), and then decreased with the largest addition (3.0 g) of casein. Coagulation time for the sample with highest rennet strength was 420 s.
Standard external beam radiotherapy is a treatment option for patients with localised prostate cancer and is used in patients with low-, intermediate- and high-risk disease with androgen deprivation according to the risk of the disease. In the last few years, hypofractionated radiotherapy has been demonstrated to be as safe as standard radiotherapy if given over a shorter time than standard radiotherapy with larger doses per fraction. External radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer typically delivers 37–42 fractions of 1·8–2·0 Gy per fraction given 5 days per week over 7·5–8·5 weeks. Hypofractionated radiotherapy delivers 20–28 fractions of 2·5–2·6 Gy per fraction given 5 days per week over 4–5·6 weeks.
A retrospective analysis of assessment of 30 patients was undertaken from 2016 to 2018. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 2-year outcomes of 30 patients with prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy 70 Gy in 28 fractions.
Biochemical failure with hypofractionated radiotherapy was found in a total of 20% of patients. In the classification by risk groups, there were no biochemical failures in low-risk patients; in the low intermediate course, 3·3% of patients; in the high intermediate group, 3·3% patients; and in the high-risk group, the largest documented biochemical failure was in 13·3% of patients. For acute urinary toxicity, grade I was 56·6%; grade II, 6·6%. For acute rectal toxicity, grade I was 46·6%; grade II, 3·3%.
This is one of the first studies of hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer in Latin America, and the results of this study demonstrated that the outcomes were similar to the standard regimen in all risk groups.
S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced by the astrocytes that has been used as a biomarker of brain inflammation. S100B has been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, being considered a marker of state and prognosis.
Studying the relationship between serum S100B levels and psychopathology in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
At admission and discharge, serum S100B levels were measured in 20 never-medicated FEP in-patients and 20 healthy controls. Psychopathology was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). The total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores were assessed. Results are presented as mean±sd. and S100B levels in pg./ml.
At admission, patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations than healthy subjects (39.2±6.4 vs. 33.3±0.98, p<0.02). S100B levels increased from admission to discharge (39.2±6.4 vs. 40.0±6.8, p=0.285) but they do not reach statistical significance. There were no correlations between PANSS (total, positive, negative and general) scores and S100B at admission and discharge. Individual item by item PANSS correlations with S100B elicited a positive correlation with P5 (grandiosity) (r=0.486, p=0.030) and G5 (mannerisms/posturing) (r=0.514; p=0.02) at discharge. There also was a positive trend with G7 (motor retardation) (r=0.409; p=0.073) at discharge.
FEP in-patients have significantly increased serum levels of S100B proteins, suggesting an activation of glial cells that may be associated with a neurodegenerative/inflammatory process. Apart from the study of total scale scores, the analysis of individual item is also recommended. The long-term treatment effect (one year or more) may be relevant to see their relationship to S100B levels.
Although asthma has been one of the most investigated topics in psychosomatics, studies and papers on psychopathology in asthma are fairly scarce and of diverse meaning. Furthermore, psychopathology acoording to sex in asthma is not a common research topic.
Aim This study aims at analyzing psychopathology sex differences in asthmatics.
The psychopathology profile in a sample of 84 adult asthmatics in a hospital outpatient facility, mean age 34.62 (s.d.12.78), 36 male / 48 female, is studied. The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) Self-Report Questionnaire was administered.
The symptomatic profile is characterized by higher scores in women, with a main elevation in the dimensions of Somatization (1.92), Depression (1.66), Obsession-Compulsion (1.62) and Anxiety (1.44) whereas lower scores are recorded in men, with a profile dominated by Hostility (1.70), Anxiety (1.68), Interpersonal Sensitivity (1.58) and Depression (1.44). These scores mainly contribute to the psychopathology pattern according to sex.
The possible clinical implications of the observed psychopathology sex differences should be taken into account in the management of these patients.
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic inherited disease characterized by hamartomatous growths in several organs as brain, skin, kidneys, hearth and eyes. The estimated incidence is approximately 1:6000 live births. The diagnosis is made clinically. Seizures are present in 87% of patients. Psychiatric comorbidity has been reported.
We report the clinical course of two patients with previous diagnosis of TSC. Psychiatric symptoms start in the adulthood without seizures history and absence of Subependimal Giant Cells Tumor (SGCT). The evolution and clinical features are described.
Married 33-years-old woman with two children affected with TSC. She was diagnosed after headache presentation in 2011. Initial MRI showed periventricular glioneuronal hamartomas. In January 2013 start with self-injurious (swallowing of objects) and autistic behaviours as well as several hospital urgency room visits. In addition, the patient presented with dull mood, emotional indifference and intellectual impairment, with no response to medication.
Married 43-years-old woman with a daughter affected with TSC. Diagnosis was made in 1999 and psychotic symptoms (delusional beliefs and auditory hallucinations) started in 2011 without previous psychiatric history. The MRI in 2013 shown subependymal nodules. Treatment with risperidone was effective.
Psychiatric symptoms are very often associated to the physical findings on TSC, even in adulthood diagnoses.
Psychiatric comorbidities are well described in literature. about 10-20% adult patients with TSC present clinically significant behavioral problems as self-injuries, frequently associated with SGCT. The European Expert Panel recommended regular assessment of cognitive development and behaviour and symptomatic treatment.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin related to the differentiation and survival of neurons as well as synaptic plasticity during brain development. It has been found reduced levels of BDNF in first-episode psychosis (FEP). There are contradictory results regarding its relation to psychopathology.
Establishing the relationship between serum BDNF levels in a group of 28 inpatients with FEP and psychopathology measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
BDNF serum levels at admission, discharge, three, six, nine and twelve months were related with psychopathology measured with the PANSS (positive, negative and general psychopathology subscales). Data are present as mean.
At admission PANSS scores were high, decreasing progressively in the following determinations due to psychopathological improvement, although over the time remained higher scores on the negative than in the positive subscale. At admission: PANSS-positive 22.78; PANSS-negative 17.85; PANSS-general psychopathology 39.67; at discharge: PANSS-positive 8.51; PANSS-negative 11.07; PANSS-general psychopathology 20.11; at six months: PANSS-positive 8.04; PANSS-negative 10.91; PANSS-general psychopathology 19.56; at twelve months: PANSS-positive 7.80; PANSS-negative 10.95; PANSS-general psychopathology 19.75. There is a negative correlation between BDNF levels and PANSS negative scores at admission (r=-0.337), with a trend towards significance (P=0.079). This correlation disappears at discharge because of psychopathology improvement and is not maintained in the following determinations.
Lower serum BDNF levels may be associated with worse clinical symptoms, especially negative symptoms. Further studies with a larger sample are needed to replicate our results.
To what extent meditation techniques (which incorporate practices to regulate attention, construct individual values, or deconstruct self-related assumptions), are more or less effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety, is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of meditation compared to relaxation in reducing anxiety. A systematic review from PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Central was conducted. A meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (n = 862 participants suffering from anxiety disorders or high trait anxiety) was performed. Effect sizes (ESs) were determined by Hedges’ g. Heterogeneity, risk of publication bias, quality of studies/interventions, and researcher allegiance, were evaluated. Meditation techniques incorporated attentional elements, and five of them also added constructive practices. No studies were found using deconstructive exercises. The overall ES was g = −0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.40 to −0.07], favouring meditation (number needed to treat = 7.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 2; 95% CI 0 to 56). There was no evidence of publication bias, but few studies and interventions were of high quality, and allegiance might be moderating results. Meditation seems to be a bit more effective than relaxation in the treatment of anxiety, and it might also remain more effective at 12-month follow-up. However, more research using the full spectrum of meditation practices to treat different anxiety disorders, including independent studies to avoid researcher allegiance, is needed if we are to have a precise idea of the potential of these techniques compared to relaxation therapy.
Trichomonas vaginalis induces cellular damage to the host cells (cytotoxicity) through the proteolytic activity of multiple proteinases of the cysteine type (CPs). Some CPs are modulated by environmental factors such as iron, zinc, polyamines, etc. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effect of glucose on T. vaginalis cytotoxicity, proteolytic activity and the particular role of TvCP2 (TVAG_057000) during cellular damage. Cytotoxicity assays showed that glucose-restriction (GR) promotes the highest HeLa cell monolayers destruction (~95%) by trichomonads compared to those grown under high glucose (~44%) condition. Zymography and Western blot using different primary antibodies showed that GR increased the proteolytic activity, amount and secretion of certain CPs, including TvCP2. We further characterized the effect of glucose on TvCP2. TvCP2 increases in GR, localized in vesicles close to the plasma membrane and on the surface of T. vaginalis. Furthermore, pretreatment of GR-trichomonads with an anti-TvCP2r polyclonal antibody specifically reduced the levels of cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction to HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data show that GR, as a nutritional stress condition, promotes trichomonal cytotoxicity to the host cells, increases trichomonad proteolytic activity and amount of CPs, such as TvCP2 involved in cellular damage.
This paper analyses the relationship between informal institutions measured by social trust and the provision of private credit. Research on the trust–finance relationship abounds, although most of it is confined to the micro-level, with far fewer contributions from a wide, cross-country perspective. Considering a sample of 119 economies in the period 1993–2015, results suggest that social trust is an important determinant of private credit, and that its effects are transmitted indirectly via some particular aspects of the quality of economic-judicial institutions. In addition, and contrary to previous findings in related areas, substitutive effects for informal and formal institutions are not found. Therefore, informal institutions can improve the quality of the certain types of formal institutions but they are, per se, unable to replace them in the provision of credit. Accordingly, a solid economic-judicial system becomes essential to guarantee credit transactions.
Four new malformations observed in blue shark embryos in the western coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico are reported in this study. The embryos of blue shark samples were obtained on board the industrial fishing boat ‘Damasta’; the organisms were frozen and transferred to CIBNOR Fish Ecology Laboratory where the corresponding measurements were taken and malformations observed. The first malformation was the presence of one nostril in two female embryos that showed short and crushed snouts. The second one was observed in a female with two jaws and the middle portion of the column trunk in screw-shape. The third one was an embryo with dicephaly, two separate vertebral columns, two first dorsal fin pairs, absence of the second dorsal fin, five pelvic fins and two joint caudal fins. The fourth malformation observed was an embryo with incomplete development and undifferentiated sex. Malformations are still a mystery and also an object of study because they affect different organisms, not only sharks but also fish. It is highly relevant to know the causes and perform further studies to understand if the origin is either genetic or anthropogenic.
The nature of the turnover process calls for the study of more complex relationships among variables beyond simple bivariate or multiple associations between predictors and turnover intentions. The present article aims to examine the predictive value of job demands and resources in the explanation of nurses’ intention to leave the organization and to test the mediating roles of professional burnout and engagement in these relationships, within a Portuguese nursing population. The research models were tested within the scope of the Registered Nurse Forecasting project. Data included the self-report questionnaires of 2,235 Portuguese nurses from 31 hospitals, collected through stratified random sampling procedures. The statistical analyses of the structural models showed that nurses’ participation in hospital affairs, a job resource at the work organization level, was the only significant predictor of nurses´ intention to leave the organization (β = –.45, p < .001). Analyses of the mediation models revealed that the emotional exhaustion symptoms of burnout (β = –.11, p < .001) and job engagement feelings (β = –.15, p < .001) were both significant mediators between nurses’ decisional involvement and their intentions to leave the organization. Results suggest that including nurses in decision-making processes regarding their professional practice policy and environment, and improving nurses’ professional well-being are two crucial strategies to reduce nurses’ turnover intentions.
The fragmentation of jaguar Panthera onca populations as a result of habitat loss is considered to be one of the main challenges for the conservation of the species. Corridors have been proposed as a means of maintaining connectivity and the long-term viability of jaguar populations. The corridor that connects the jaguar conservation units of Calakmul and Laguna de Terminos in Mexico has been considered to be a link for the movement of individuals between these units but its functionality had yet to be verified. During 2012–2014 we divided the corridor into four sections, where we used camera traps to verify the corridor's functionality. We obtained 106 photographs of jaguars, proving the presence of jaguars (including resident jaguars and females) in three of the corridor sections. We did not record any individuals in more than one section of the corridor. The presence of several resident jaguars and females throughout the corridor suggests that portions of the corridor should be incorporated into the Calakmul and Laguna de Terminos jaguar conservation units. Nevertheless, to confirm that the corridor is fully functional it is necessary to obtain evidence of movement of jaguars among the various sections of the corridor. Our results suggest that the area should be included in regional conservation strategies.
The experiment, conducted at Bahia, Brazil, from May to August 2010, aimed to evaluate the nitrogen (N) balance, urea excretion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed pelleted concentrates with the addition of crude protein (CP), obtained by replacing alfalfa hay with soybean meal. The diets consisted of different levels of CP and 200 g of roughage (Tifton 85 hay)/kg. Maize and mesquite bran were used as the energy source, with maize replaced by mesquite bran in the ratio of 1·7:1. Eight female Saanen goats were used, confined in individual pens and allocated to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The N balance in the body was positive, and loss of body weight (–0·03 g/day) was observed for the diet with 190 g CP/kg. The concentration (mg/dl) of urea in urine, milk and blood plasma was positively influenced in a linear form, and the highest rate of increase was found in urine, with 2 mg/dl for every 10 g CP/kg added to the diet. The microbial protein synthesis was not affected, but the diets reduced the microbial protein (44 g/day) and its ruminal production efficiency (30 g/kg total digestible nutrients). The levels above 190 g of CP are not recommended because of the energy expenditure required to excrete the urea.
Background: Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and in the plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) genes have been implicated in stroke pathogenesis but results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the possible contribution of Glu298Asp in the eNOS and 4G/5G in the PAI-1polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a young Mexican population. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, conducted between January 2006 and June 2010, 204 patients ≤45 years of age with ischemic stroke and 204 controls matched by age and gender, were recruited. The Glu298Asp and 4G/5G polymorphisms were determined in all participants by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: There was a significant difference in the Glu298Asp genotype distribution (P=0.001) and allele frequency between the two groups (P=0.001). The 4G/5G genotype distribution (P=0.40) and the allele frequency was similar between groups; (P=0.13). There were independent factors for ischemic stroke: Asp carriage (GluAsp+AspAsp) (P=0.02); smoking (P=0.01); hypertension (P=0.03), and familial history of atherothrombotic disease (P=0.04). Conclusions: The Asp allele from the Gu298Asp gene represents an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in a young Mexican population. In contrast, the 4G/5G was not associated with an increased risk for this disease in the same group of patients, as previously has been demonstrated in other populations.
To evaluate the association between weight gain in the first two years of life and the occurrence of wheezing, asthma, serum IgE, skin reactivity and pulmonary function.
The metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
The association was studied between 1997 and 2005 in 669 children up to 11 years of age. Data were collected on asthma and risk factors, both current factors and those present in the first years of life. Weight gain was considered fast when the Z-score was >0·67. Poisson regression was used in the multivariate statistical analysis.
Wheezing was reported in 25·6 % of the children. Weight gain was considered fast (Z-score >0·67) in 29·6 % of the children and slow (Z-score <−0·67) in 13·9 %. Children in the slow weight gain group had 36 % fewer symptoms of asthma (prevalence ratio = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·99).
Slower weight gain in the early years of life may constitute a protective factor against symptoms of asthma. The relevance of this finding for public health is not yet certain, since it is known that children with slow and fast weight gain may be more likely to develop adverse health consequences related to both these situations.
Tribenuron-methyl has been used widely for the last 15 yr to control white mustard in cereal crops from southern Spain. Since 2007, several cases of tribenuron-methyl resistance have been reported in wheat fields. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the mechanism of suspected tribenuron-methyl resistance in a white mustard biotype (hereafter AR16) from Malaga (southern Spain). Under greenhouse conditions, the dose (g ai ha−1) inhibiting fresh weight by 50% (ED50) was 5.20 and 0.57 for the AR16 and AR3 (known susceptible) biotypes, respectively. With the use of 14C-tribenuron-methyl, absorption and translocation from treated leaves were similar between biotypes. Thin-layer chromatography indicated foliar metabolism of tribenuron-methyl was low in both R and S biotypes. Assays on the binding affinity of tribenuron-methyl on acetolactate synthase (ALS) revealed enzyme activity was reduced by 50% (I50 value) at 638.7 and 0.23 nM for the AR16 and AR3 biotypes, respectively. This resulted in 2,777-fold greater resistance to tribenuron-methyl for the AR16 compared to AR3 biotype. Sequencing the gene encoding ALS, a proline/serine amino-acid substitution, was detected in position 197 of the A domain. Based on these results, it is concluded that tribenuron-methyl resistance in the AR16 biotype is due to a target-site mutation in the ALS enzyme, resulting in a lack of affinity to tribenuron-methyl.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
To evaluate the association between overweight and the occurrence of asthma and atopy in a cohort of children of 4–12 years of age living in the city of Salvador in 2005.
Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort.
The metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
The study included 1129 children of 4–12 years age who presented complete information on the variables used here. Skin tests for allergy, spirometry, faecal parasitology, serum IgE and anthropometric surveys were conducted. Poisson's multivariate regression was adopted.
Wheezing was found in 29·1% and asthma in 22·8% of children, both conditions being more common in those under 6 years of age and 34% more common in overweight children (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1·34; 95% CI 1·07, 1·67) following adjustment. The ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1s and forced vital capacity was associated with overweight (PR = 1·35; 95% CI 1·11, 1·61). No statistically significant association was found between overweight and allergen-specific IgE or with wheezing.
These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that overweight is associated with asthma and pulmonary function, even following adjustment for intervening variables known to be associated with the pathogeny of asthma.