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Hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) negatively affects cardiopulmonary physiology. Compression-adjusted ventilations (CAVs) may allow providers to deliver ventilation rates more consistently than conventional ventilations (CVs). This study sought to compare ventilation rates between these two methods during simulated cardiac arrest.
That CAV will not result in different rates than CV in simulated CPR with metronome-guided compressions.
Volunteer Basic Life Support (BLS)-trained providers delivered bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilations during simulated CPR with metronome-guided compressions at 100 beats/minute. For the first 4-minute interval, volunteers delivered CV. Volunteers were then instructed on how to perform CAV by delivering one breath, counting 12 compressions, and then delivering a subsequent breath. They then performed CAV for the second 4-minute interval. Ventilation rates were manually recorded. Minute-by-minute ventilation rates were compared between the techniques.
A total of 23 volunteers were enrolled with a median age of 36 years old and with a median of 14 years of experience. Median ventilation rates were consistently higher in the CV group versus the CAV group across all 1-minute segments: 13 vs 9, 12 vs 8, 12 vs 8, and 12 vs 8 for minutes one through four, respectively (P <.01, all). Hyperventilation (>10 breaths per minute) occurred 64% of the time intervals with CV versus one percent with CAV (P <.01). The proportion of time which hyperventilation occurred was also consistently higher in the CV group versus the CAV group across all 1-minute segments: 78% vs 4%, 61% vs 0%, 57% vs 0%, and 61% vs 0% for minutes one through four, respectively (P <.01, all).
In this simulated model of cardiac arrest, CAV had more accurate ventilation rates and fewer episodes of hyperventilation compared with CV.
Nikolla DA, Kramer BJ, Carlson JN. A cross-over trial comparing conventional to compression-adjusted ventilations with metronome-guided compressions. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):220–223
Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents occurs 20 to 30% of the time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of cardiac arrest due to loss of protective airway reflexes, pressure changes generated during CPR, and positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Although the American Heart Association has recommended the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an acceptable alternative airway for use by emergency medical service personnel, concerns over the capacity of the device to protect from pulmonary aspiration remain.We sought to determine the occurrence of aspiration after LMA placement, CPR, and PPV.
We inserted a size 4 LMA, modified so that a vacuum catheter could be advanced past the LMA diaphragm, into the hypopharynx of 16 consecutive postexperimental mixed-breed domestic swine. Fifteen millilitres of heparinized blood was instilled into the oropharynx. Chest compressions were performed for 60 seconds with asynchronous ventilation via a mechanical ventilator. We then suctioned through the LMA for 1 minute. The catheter was removed and inspected for signs of blood. The LMA cuff was deflated, removed, and inspected for signs of blood.
None of 16 animals (95% CI 0-17%) had a positive test for the presence of blood in both the vacuum catheter and the intima of the LMA diaphragm.
In this swine model of regurgitation after LMA placement, there were no cases with evidence of blood beyond the seal created by the LMA cuff. Future studies are needed to determine the frequency of pulmonary aspiration after LMA placement during CPR and PPV in the clinical setting.
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