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Patients with candidemia are at risk for other invasive infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI).
To identify the risk factors for, and outcomes of, BSI in adults with Candida spp. and MRSA at the same time or nearly the same time.
Population-based cohort study.
Metropolitan Atlanta, March 1, 2008, through November 30, 2012.
All residents with Candida spp. or MRSA isolated from blood.
The Georgia Emerging Infections Program conducts active, population-based surveillance for candidemia and invasive MRSA. Medical records for patients with incident candidemia were reviewed to identify cases of MRSA coinfection, defined as incident MRSA BSI 30 days before or after candidemia. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with coinfection in patients with candidemia.
Among 2,070 adult candidemia cases, 110 (5.3%) had coinfection within 30 days. Among these 110 coinfections, MRSA BSI usually preceded candidemia (60.9%; n=67) or occurred on the same day (20.0%; n=22). The incidence of coinfection per 100,000 population decreased from 1.12 to 0.53 between 2009 and 2012, paralleling the decreased incidence of all MRSA BSIs and candidemia. Thirty-day mortality was similarly high between coinfection cases and candidemia alone (45.2% vs 36.0%, P=.10). Only nursing home residence (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.03–2.86]) predicted coinfection.
A small but important proportion of patients with candidemia have MRSA coinfection, suggesting that heightened awareness is warranted after 1 major BSI pathogen is identified. Nursing home residents should be targeted in BSI prevention efforts.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1298–1304
To describe the implementation of a population-based surveillance system for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB).
Population-based active surveillance by the Georgia Emerging Infections Program.
Metropolitan Atlanta, starting November 2010.
Residents with MDR-GNB isolated from urine or a normally sterile site culture.
Surveillance was implemented in 3 phases: (1) surveying laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing practices, (2) piloting surveillance to estimate the proportion of GNB that were MDR, and (3) maintaining ongoing active surveillance for carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii using the 2010 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Pilot surveillance required developing and installing queries for GNB on the 3 types of automated testing instruments (ATIs), such as MicroScan, in Atlanta's clinical laboratories. Ongoing surveillance included establishing a process to extract data from ATIs consistently, review charts, manage data, and provide feedback to laboratories.
Output from laboratory information systems typically used for surveillance would not reliably capture the CLSI breakpoints, but queries developed for the 3 ATIs did. In November 2010, 0.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 35.7% of A. baumannii isolates from 21 laboratories were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Over a 5-month period, 82 Enterobacteriaceae and 59 A. baumannii were identified as carbapenem nonsusceptible.
Directly querying ATIs, a novel method of active surveillance for MDR-GNB, proved to be a reliable, sustainable, and accurate method that required moderate initial investment and modest maintenance. Ongoing surveillance is critical to assess the burden of and changes in MDR-GNB to inform prevention efforts.
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