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Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second-most common cause of young-onset dementia. Personality and behavior changes lead to high caregiver stress and burden, but little support is available. Our aim is to present the evidence on the characteristics, challenges and unmet needs of caregivers as well as on possible interventions.
We conducted a scoping review on caregiver burden using PubMed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. A total of 69 articles were considered eligible and were analyzed in the present study.
Through the analysis of 69 empirical articles, our results show that caregivers of patients with FTLD are often younger in age, have children and find behavioral disturbances to be the most burdensome. Nine studies assessed the needs of and support for caregivers. Ten studies compared the burden in different forms of FTLD, 19 compared FTLD to other types of dementia, and one compared the caregiver burden between two countries. Eight studies reported on interventions for caregivers or interventions taking burden into account. One study assessed the support structure for caregivers of FTLD patients. Five case reports, eight research overviews and three reviews addressed specific needs and challenges.
Further research should reproduce and validate efficacious interventions and focus on underage children of FTLD patients and findings from non-Western countries. Additionally, support structures for FTLD caregivers should be assessed and extended. Awareness both in the wider population and among healthcare professionals is an urgent need for the future.
The role of emotions in the creative process is well documented. In this chapter, we distinguish emotional processes in creativity from creativity in the domain of emotions. Creativity in the domain of emotions exists when people are creative with emotions – emotions are the object of the creative process. We describe three kinds of creativity in the domain of emotions – emotional creativity (experience of unique emotions), creative communication of emotions, and creative emotion regulation. Furthermore, we present a model in which we argue that creativity in the domain of emotions is less likely to have the same impact on society and culture as creativity in other domains that are more defined by education and formal gate keepers (e.g., art or science), but that it is crucial for psychological health and well-being.