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The cognitive process of worry, which keeps negative thoughts in mind and elaborates the content, contributes to the occurrence of many mental health disorders. Our principal aim was to develop a straightforward measure of general problematic worry suitable for research and clinical treatment. Our secondary aim was to develop a measure of problematic worry specifically concerning paranoid fears.
An item pool concerning worry in the past month was evaluated in 250 non-clinical individuals and 50 patients with psychosis in a worry treatment trial. Exploratory factor analysis and item response theory (IRT) informed the selection of scale items. IRT analyses were repeated with the scales administered to 273 non-clinical individuals, 79 patients with psychosis and 93 patients with social anxiety disorder. Other clinical measures were administered to assess concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with 75 participants. Sensitivity to change was assessed with 43 patients with psychosis.
A 10-item general worry scale (Dunn Worry Questionnaire; DWQ) and a five-item paranoia worry scale (Paranoia Worries Questionnaire; PWQ) were developed. All items were highly discriminative (DWQ a = 1.98–5.03; PWQ a = 4.10–10.7), indicating small increases in latent worry lead to a high probability of item endorsement. The DWQ was highly informative across a wide range of the worry distribution, whilst the PWQ had greatest precision at clinical levels of paranoia worry. The scales demonstrated excellent internal reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to change.
The new measures of general problematic worry and worry about paranoid fears have excellent psychometric properties.
Reducing the delay of backend interconnects is critical in delivering improved performance in next generation computer chips. One option is to implement interlayer dielectric (ILD) materials with increasingly lower dielectric constant (k) values. Despite industry need, there has been a recent decrease in study and production of these materials in academia and business communities. We have generated a backbone and porogen system that allows us to control porosity from 0 to 60% volume, achieve k-values from 3.4 to 1.6, maintain high chemical stability to various wet cleans, and deliver uniquely high mechanical strength at a given porosity. Finite element modeling and experimental results demonstrate that further improvements can be achieved through control of the pore volume into an ordered network. With hopes to spur more materials development, this paper discusses some molecular design and nanoscale hierarchical principles relevant to making next generation low-k ILD materials.
To describe the implementation of a population-based surveillance system for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB).
Population-based active surveillance by the Georgia Emerging Infections Program.
Metropolitan Atlanta, starting November 2010.
Residents with MDR-GNB isolated from urine or a normally sterile site culture.
Surveillance was implemented in 3 phases: (1) surveying laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing practices, (2) piloting surveillance to estimate the proportion of GNB that were MDR, and (3) maintaining ongoing active surveillance for carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii using the 2010 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Pilot surveillance required developing and installing queries for GNB on the 3 types of automated testing instruments (ATIs), such as MicroScan, in Atlanta's clinical laboratories. Ongoing surveillance included establishing a process to extract data from ATIs consistently, review charts, manage data, and provide feedback to laboratories.
Output from laboratory information systems typically used for surveillance would not reliably capture the CLSI breakpoints, but queries developed for the 3 ATIs did. In November 2010, 0.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 35.7% of A. baumannii isolates from 21 laboratories were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Over a 5-month period, 82 Enterobacteriaceae and 59 A. baumannii were identified as carbapenem nonsusceptible.
Directly querying ATIs, a novel method of active surveillance for MDR-GNB, proved to be a reliable, sustainable, and accurate method that required moderate initial investment and modest maintenance. Ongoing surveillance is critical to assess the burden of and changes in MDR-GNB to inform prevention efforts.
We report an experimental study of photocarrier lifetime, transport, and excitation spectra in silicon-on-insulator doped with sulfur far above thermodynamic saturation. The spectral dependence of photocurrent in coplanar structures is consistent with photocarrier generation throughout the hyperdoped and undoped sub-layers, limited by collection of holes transported along the undoped layer. Holes photoexcited in the hyperdoped layer are able to diffuse to the undoped layer, implying (μτ)h ∼ 5 × 10−9 cm2/V. Although high absorptance of hyperdoped silicon is observed from 1200 to 2000 nm in transmission experiments, the number of collected electrons per absorbed photon is 10−4 of the above-bandgap response of the device, consistent with (μτ)e < 1 × 10−7cm2/V.
Estimation of tree growth is generally based on repeated diameter measurements. A buttress at the height of measurement will lead to overestimates of tree diameter. Because buttresses grow up the trunk through time, it has become common practice to increase the height of measurement, to ensure that measurements remain above the buttress. However, tapering of the trunk means that increasing measurement height will bias estimates of diameter downward by up to 10% per m of height. This bias could affect inference concerning species differences and climate effects on tree demography and on biomass accumulation. Here we introduce a hierarchical state space method that allows formal integration of data on diameter taken at different heights and can include individual variation, temporal effects or other covariates. We illustrate our approach using species from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and La Selva, Costa Rica. Results include trends that are consistent with some of those previously reported for climate responses and changes over time, but differ in relative magnitude. By including the full data-set and accounting for bias and variation among individuals and over time, our approach allows for quantification of climate responses and the uncertainty associated with measurements and the underlying growth process.