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Freshwater mussels are declining rapidly worldwide. Propagation has the potential to restore numbers of these remarkable organisms, preventing extinction of rare species and maintaining the many benefits that they bring to aquatic ecosystems. Written by practitioners with firsthand experience of propagation programs, this practical book is a thorough guide to the subject, taking readers through the process from start to finish. The latest propagation and culture techniques are explored as readers follow freshwater mussels through their amazing and complex life cycle. Topics covered include the basics of building a culture facility, collecting and maintaining brood stock, collecting host species, infesting host species with larval mussels, collecting and culturing juvenile mussels, releasing juveniles to the wild, and post-release monitoring. This will be valuable reading for any biologist interested in the conservation of freshwater mussel populations.
Anxiety is both an innate and a constructed response to perceived and anticipated threat. This chapter explores anxiety as signal, symptom and syndrome, and describes the evolution of the major psychodynamic models of signal anxiety. The major psychodynamic models of signal anxiety posit anxiety as a signal of unconscious, intrapsychic danger. Neurobiological factors also contribute to the development and expression of anxiety symptoms and syndromes. Imaging techniques have been used to illustrate the presence of unconscious processes that to date have only been hypothesized; specifically that unconscious affects are a crucial determinant of behavior. Many symptomatic patients were forced to make adaptations to internal and external threats in early childhood. Ironically, the treatment of symptomatic anxiety may create an anxiety of its own, the anxiety about change. Many patients present with the acute onset of anxiety symptoms but do not meet the criteria for an Axis I anxiety disorder.