A cornerstone in the successful application of semiconductor nanowire devices is controlled impurity doping. In this review article, we discuss the key results in the field of semiconductor nanowire doping. Considerable development has recently taken place in this field, and half of the references in this review are less than 3 years old. We present a simple model for dopant incorporation during in situ doping of particle-assisted growth of nanowires. The effects of doping on nanowire growth are thoroughly discussed since many investigators have seen much stronger and more complex effects than those observed in thin-film growth. We also give an overview of methods of characterizing doping in nanowires since these in many ways define the boundaries of our current understanding.