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This chapter offers a brief review of some issues related to the economics of minimum wage regulations. More concretely, I will organize my discussion around two major headings: Why minimum wages? And what are the effects of minimum wages on employment, technological change, and inequality?
To investigate the nature of the relationship between cognitive function, mood state, and functionality in predicting awareness in a non-clinically depressed sample of participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Brazil.
People with AD (PwAD) aged 60 years or older were recruited from an outpatient unit at the Center of AD of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Measures of awareness of condition (Assessment Scale of the Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), mood state (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia), and functionality (Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire) were applied to 264 people with mild to moderate AD and their caregivers. Hypotheses were tested statistically using SEM approach. Three competing models were compared.
The first model, in which the influence of mood state and cognitive function on awareness was mediated by functionality, showed a very good fit to the data and a medium effect size. The competing models, in which the mediating variables were mood state and cognitive function, respectively, only showed poor model fit.
Our model supports the notion that the relationship between different factors and awareness in AD is mediated by functionality and not by depressive mood state or cognitive level. The proposed direct and indirect effects on awareness are discussed, as well as the missing direct influence of mood state on awareness. The understanding of awareness in dementia is crucial and our model gives one possible explanation of its underlying structure in AD.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
Archaeological investigations at Monte Bernorio (northern Spain) and its surroundings are yielding exciting new evidence for the destruction of the Iron Age oppidum by the Roman military and the subsequent Roman occupation of the area.
The northern regions of the Iberian Peninsula have traditionally been excluded in international debates on Iron Age urbanisation. However, the hillforts and oppida of the Cantabrian area show considerable similarities to the situation found in wide parts of Temperate Europe during the 1st millennium bc. One of the most important centres is the oppidum of Monte Bernorio, which was occupied between the Late Bronze Age and the Roman Conquest. This paper offers a first overview of the archaeological fieldwork carried out over the last decade, which has revealed the existence of an extremely complex and extensive system of multivallate fortifications enclosing an area of about 90 ha. Therefore, it is one of the largest Iron Age fortified sites of the whole of the Iberian Peninsula. The material culture recovered at the settlement – including large amounts of pottery, animal remains, metal objects, and glass beads – testifies both local production and long-distance networks. Moreover, the recovery of a tessera hospitalis with written text constitutes a prime example of the existence of legally sanctioned ‘citizenship rights’ among the pre-Roman communities of the Cantabrian area. Finally, recent discoveries at the oppidum itself and at the nearby Roman military camp of El Castillejo indicate a siege and conquest by the Roman army in the course of the Cantabrian Wars led by Emperor Augustus in the 20s BC. The evidence points towards the existence of one of the major battlefields of Rome’s imperial expansion in the West.
This study’s purpose was to analyse basic reading processes in different age groups of Spanish-speaking children using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and regression analysis. Two hundred forty-five children (aged 4 years and 9 months, to 9 years and 7 months; 120 boys, 125 girls), native Spanish-speakers, were selected from schools in Madrid. All participants were in either their last year of preschool or the first three years of elementary school, depending on their age. Nine classic reading tasks were created and administered to measure three reading skills: word recognition, phonological awareness, and reading comprehension. The results of the CFA show that data fit to proposed model with a general reading factor based on these three reading skills χ2(27) = 29.03, p = .36, RMSEA = .02, 90% CIs [.0, .05], CFI = 1.0. The word recognition skills were the best at describing reading performance in preschool children (R2 = .51 for word identification task); phonological awareness, especially rhyme identification task, discriminated well until second grade (R2 = .60); and finally, reading comprehension, basically phrase completion task, were the best measure of reading performance in third grade (R2 = .45).
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ovine bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) on composition, proteose-peptone (p-p) content and casein fractions as indicating parameters for proteolysis and coagulating properties of milk. A total of 97 samples of bulk tank milk from Manchega breed ewe flocks were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into four classes: fewer than 500 000 cells/ml, from 500 000 to 10 00 000 cells/ml, from 10 00 000 to 15 00 000 and more than 15 00 000 cells/ml. The casein : protein ratio and lactose content decreased with BTSCC. Proteolysis increased with BTSCC, causing a drop in β-casein and an increase in the γ-caseins from a concentration of 500 000 cells/ml. Regarding coagulation behaviour, the rennet clotting time (RCT) and firming time (k20) rose from 10 00 000–15 00 000 cells/ml of milk. The results showed that the impairment of milk quality and milk ability to make cheese as affected by intramammary infection (IMI) can be inferred from the bulk tank milk of flocks with poor udder health.
The occurrence of the alien species Anadara kagoshimensis is reported for the first time in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain) during 2013. Living specimens of this species have been recognized by morphological analysis. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has been partially sequenced and Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses carried out to confirm its identification. This new record reaffirms the presence of A. kagoshimensis, previously reported as Anadara inaequivalvis, along the Atlantic European coast extending the known distribution range in Spanish waters to the south.
This article contributes to a line of research in Business History that aims to determine the factors of family business longevity in the long term with the study of individual cases. The literature has identified family cohesion as one of the essential factors for survival. Cohesion may be reinforced or broken at the time of the intergenerational transfer. This study finds that a critical response on the part of the business family to the difficulties associated with intergenerational transfer of control, including modifications to the original plan, is usually based on trust between generations. Within the business family cohesion facilitates intergenerational transfers and, consequently, allows the family to evolve and transform itself into a business dynasty.
It is well known that the presence of related individuals can affect the inference of population genetic structure from molecular data. This has been verified, for example, on the unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE. This methodology assumes, among others, Hardy–Weinberg and linkage equilibrium within subpopulations. The existence of groups of close relatives, such as full-sib families, may prevent these assumptions to be fulfilled, causing the algorithm to work suboptimally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the presence of related individuals on a different methodology (implemented in CLUSTER_DIST) for population genetic structure inference. This approach arranges individuals to maximize the genetic distance between groups and does not make Hardy–Weinberg and linkage equilibrium assumptions. We study the robustness of this approach to the presence of close relatives in a sample using simulated scenarios involving combinations of several factors, including the number of subpopulations, the level of differentiation between them, the number, size and type (full or half-sibs) of families in a sample, and the type and number of molecular markers available for clustering analysis. Results indicate that the methodology that maximizes the genetic distance between subpopulations is less influenced by the presence of related individuals than the program STRUCTURE. Therefore, the former can be used, in combination with the program STRUCTURE, to analyse population genetic structure when related individuals are suspected to be present in a sample.
This study examines consistency between compensation systems and corporate performance. The main purpose is to analyse how the performance has affected the short-term executive pay in Spanish banking system during the period 2004–2008. The main results reveal that pay-performance sensitivity is asymmetrical regarding the sign of the variation of the performance, since the pay-performance sensitivity is greater when the variation of the results is positive than when the variation of the results is negative. This finding is consistent with the managerial power theory and calls into question the role of the pay-performance incentives to align interest of executives and shareholders.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify risk points in the different stages of the smart infusion pump implementation process to prioritize improvement measures.
Methods: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a General and Teaching Hospital. A multidisciplinary team was comprised of two intensive care pediatricians, two clinical pharmacists and the PICU nurse manager. FMEA was carried out before implementing CareFusion infusion smart pumps and eighteen months after to identify risk points during three different stages of the implementation process: creating a drug library; using the technology during clinical practice and analyzing the data stored using Guardrails® CQI v4.1 Event Reporter software.
Results: Several actions for improvement were taken. These included carrying out periodical reviews of the drug library, developing support documents, and including a training profile in the system so that alarms set off by real programming errors could be distinguished from those caused by incorrect use of the system. Eighteen months after the implementation, these measures had helped to reduce the likelihood of each risk point occurring and increase the likelihood of their detection.
Conclusions: Carrying out an FMEA made it possible to detect risk points in the use of smart pumps, take action to improve the tool, and adapt it to the PICU. Providing user training and support tools and continuously monitoring results helped to improve the usefulness of the drug library, increased users’ compliance with the drug library, and decreased the number of unnecessary alarms.
In up to a quarter of patients, schizophrenia is resistant to standard treatments. We undertook a naturalistic study of 153 patients treated in the tertiary referral in-patient unit of the National Psychosis Service based at the Maudsley Hospital in London. A retrospective analysis of symptoms on admission and discharge was undertaken using the OPCRIT tool, along with preliminary economic modelling of potential costs related to changes in accommodation.
In-patient treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all symptom categories in patients already identified as having schizophrenia refractory to standard secondary care. The preliminary cost analysis showed net savings to referring authorities due to changes from pre- to post-discharge accommodation.
Despite the enormous clinical, personal and societal burden of refractory psychotic illnesses, there is insufficient information on the outcomes of specialised tertiary-level care. Our pilot data support its utility in all domains measured.
Slope deposits in semiarid regions are known to be very sensitive environments, especially those that occurred during the minor fluctuations of the late Holocene. In this paper we analyse Holocene colluvium genesis, composition, and paleoenvironmental meaning through the study of slope deposits in NE Spain. Two cumulative slope stages are described during this period. In the study area, both slope accumulations are superimposed and this has enabled an excellent preservation of the aggregative sequence and the paleosols corresponding to stabilisation stages. 14C and TL dating, as well as archaeological remains, provide considerable chronological precision for this sequence. The origin of the accumulation of the lower unit is placed around 4295–4083 cal yr BP/2346–2134 cal yr BC (late Chalcolithic) and it developed until the Iron Age in a cooler and wetter climate (Cold Iron Age). Under favourable conditions, a soil A-horizon was formed on top of this unit. A new slope accumulation was formed during the Little Ice Age. Within the slope two morphogenetic periods ending with A-horizons are distinguished and related with two main cold–wet climatic events. The study of these slopes provides a great amount of data for the paleoenvironmental and geoarchaeological reconstruction of the late Holocene in NE Spain.
This study aimed to analyze the influence of victim-related and observer-related
factors in victim blaming of battered women. Two hundred and forty six college
students participated. They were asked to read a scenario describing a
hypothetical case of physical violence perpetrated by a man against his partner.
Depending on the experimental condition, the victim was described either as a
feminist and/or as exhibiting difficulties in her relationship with others or
not. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed with victim blaming as
dependent variable. Participants’ hostile sexism positively predicted
victim blaming when the victim was described as a feminist and as a
“difficult to deal with” woman (p
< .001). In addition, men, but not women, high in hostile
sexist attitudes placed more blame on the victim when she was presented as a
feminist woman (p < .001). These results underscore
the importance of victim-related and observer-related factors, and of their
interaction, in blaming the victim of gender-based violence.
Macroeconomics is concerned with the dynamic effects of shocks. For instance, the real-business-cycle research program originated with an investigation of the consequences of changes in productivity (Kydland and Prescott 1982). Later, the new generation of monetary models of the late 1990s and early 2000s was particularly focused on shocks to monetary policy (Christiano, Eichenbaum, and Evans 2005). In open macroeconomics, considerable attention was devoted to shocks to the interest rate (Mendoza 1991) or to the terms of trade (Mendoza 1995). Similar examples can be cited from dozens of other subfields of macroeconomics, from asset pricing to macro public finance: Researchers postulate an exogenous stochastic process and explore the consequences for prices and quantities of innovations to it.
Traditionally, one key feature of these stochastic processes was the assumption of homoscedasticity. More recently, however, economists started to relax this assumption. In particular, they considered shocks to the variance of the innovations of the processes. A first motivation for this new research comes from the realization that time-series have a strong time-varying variance component. The most famous of those episodes is the great moderation of aggregate fluctuations in the United States between 1984 and 2007, when real aggregate volatility fell by around one third and nominal volatility by more than half. A natural mechanism to generate these changes is to have shocks that also have a time-varying volatility and to trace the effects of changes in volatility on aggregate dynamics.