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The 14C peak in AD 775 (M12) has been measured and confirmed globally in several studies since it was first measured in annual tree rings by Miyake et al. (2012). However, M12 data measurements in early- and latewood are limited. This paper presents the Δ14C values in early- and latewood from AD 762–776 Zelkova serrata tree rings from Bangu-dong, Ulsan, South Korea (35°33′N, 129°20′E). The results indicate no early rise in Δ14C values in the latewood of AD 774 in this sample located at mid-latitude. A comparison of the results of this and previous studies suggests latitude dependence (Büntgen et al. 2018); that is, the early rise of Δ14C in AD 774 was not observed at mid-latitudes in South Korea but was observed at high latitudes in Finland. The half-oxidation time of 14C was estimated from a detailed analysis of a small bomb peak in AD 1962. Based on the half-oxidation time, the Δ14C rise in the latewood, but not in the earlywood, of AD 774 in Finland, and the absence of a Δ14C rise in both the early- and latewood of AD 774 in South Korea, the 14C spike was estimated to have been produced from late April to mid-June in AD 774.
Differential diagnosis of an intracardiac mass is difficult when detected only by echocardiography before a biopsy is completed. However, treatment cannot be postponed until the biopsy results are obtained. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with an intracardiac mass in the mitral valve mimicking infective endocarditis and severe mitral regurgitation. The mass was finally diagnosed as valvulitis associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which was complicated with macrophage activation syndrome. After careful exclusion of acute infectious disease, we started steroid pulse therapy and administered tocilizumab to treat the cytokine storm before performing the surgery. Finally, we performed mass excision and mitral valve replacement after immunosuppressant therapy.
This paper reports the results of tree-ring dating and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) wiggle-matching for wooden Buddhist statues stored at the Eungjindang Hall of Neunggasa Temple, South Korea. Among 23 statues, 10 were successfully dated by tree rings. The cutting date of logs used for the statues was determined as some time between late fall 1684 and early spring 1685 when the bark ring (AD 1684) completed latewood formation. The 95.4% confidence interval of a radiocarbon date (cal AD 1688–1713, 2 σ), which was obtained by wiggle-matching 7 samples of a statue, is similar to the dendro-date (AD 1684). A historical document recorded that the statues in the Eungjindang of Neunggasa were dedicated in July 1685. The dendro-date and written record indicate that Eungjindang statues were made within 3–8 months after log cutting. This seems rather short if we consider the period required for natural drying to avoid defects such as cracking and crooking.
A ventricular septal defect is, almost always, an integral part of double outlet right ventricle and has been classified into the subaortic, subpulmonary, doubly committed and non-committed varieties. This study was performed to correlate the cross-sectional imaging characteristics of such ventricular septal defect in double outlet right ventricles using pathological specimens. The extent and the orientation of the outlet septum were the most important in the differentiation of the four varieties of ventricular septal defect. In the subaortic variety, the outlet septum fused with the left anterior margin of the defect, this being marked by the anterior limb of the septomarginal trabeculation. In the subpulmonary variety, the outlet septum fused with the right posterior margin of the defect, this being the posterior limb of the septomarginal trabeculation. The outlet septum was vestigial in case with doubly committed defects. In those with non-committed defects, the defect was not shown in those images or sections which demonstrated the outlet septum.
Anatomic data are presented of a female abortus with the unusual combination of Ebstein's malformation and atrioventricular septal defect with right isomerism of the atrial appendages, left-hand ventricular topology and discordant ventriculoarterial connection. The common atrioventricular orifice was guarded by an effectively common valve, the right half being guarded by a well-formed three-leaflet valve, but the posterior and left lateral wall of the orifice being deficient of valvar leaflet tissue. The right ventricular inlet was a blind chamber, an imperforate dimple being seen which was surrounded by valvar remnants. The apical trabecular and outlet components of the right ventricle communicated with the left ventricle through an outlet ventricular septal defect in front of the anterosuperior leaflet of the atrioventricular valve, giving the potential clinically for the lesion to be misdiagnosed as double inlet left ventricle.
The morphological definition of atrial chambers, and the determination of atrial laterality, are based on analysis of the structure of the atrial appendages. The systemic and pulmonary venous connections to the heart, nonetheless, are important in the management of patients having isomeric appendages. In this study, therefore, we analysed the morphology of the postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers so as to provide evidence concerning the morphogenetic background of those hearts, and to improve operative management.
We reviewed 15 autopsied specimens with isomeric right appendages, and 10 with isomeric left appendages, paying particular attention to the morphology of the systemic and pulmonary venous connections. The postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers can be made up of the atrial body, the systemic venous components, or the pulmonary venous component. We analysed the contributions made by each of these components.
The postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers were markedly variable, but could be grouped into five patterns. Bilaterally well-developed systemic venous components and absence of the pulmonary venous component within the hypoplastic atrial body were present in 9 hearts with extracardiac pulmonary venous connections in the setting of right isomerism. Bilaterally well-developed systemic venous components, and a hypoplastic pulmonary venous component within the hypoplastic atrial body, were present in 5 hearts with intracardiac pulmonary venous connections in right isomerism. Bilaterally well-developed systemic venous components, and a hypoplastic pulmonary venous component within the sizable atrial body, were present in 1 heart with an intracardiac pulmonary venous connection in right isomerism. A well-developed pulmonary venous component within the atrial body, and hypoplasia of one systemic venous component, were present in 7 hearts with left isomerism. A well-developed pulmonary venous component within the atrial body, and hypoplasia of bilateral systemic venous components, were present in 3 hearts with left isomerism.
The postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers in hearts with isomeric atrial appendages can be analysed on the basis of a compound structure made of bilateral systemic venous components, a central pulmonary venous component, and the body of the atrium. Hearts with isomeric right appendages have absence or hypoplasia of the pulmonary venous component, while hearts with isomeric left appendages have hypoplastic systemic venous components.
The arterial supply to the lungs in cases with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia or critical pulmonary stenosis is mostly via the arterial duct or else by collateral arteries arising directly or indirectly from the aorta. Nine anatomical specimens with collateral arteries were studied by blunt dissection to determine the arterial supply to each pulmonary segment. The precise supply varied from case to case but, overall, nearly two-thirds of the pulmonary segments were connected to the central pulmonary arteries. A quarter were supplied exclusively by systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries, with the remainder having a dual supply. Coexistence of ductal connections and systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries was seen in one case. Anastomoses between vessels of different origins were observed up to the segmental level in eight of the nine cases. In four cases, the anastomoses formed arterial rings. The extent of pulmonary parenchyma supplied by arteries from different sources and the presence of arterial anastomoses in these malformations have implications on the planning of surgical repair.
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