To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Firefighters are routinely exposed to various traumatic events and often experience a range of trauma-related symptoms. Although these repeated traumatic exposures rarely progress to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, firefighters are still considered to be a vulnerable population with regard to trauma.
To investigate how the human brain responds to or compensates for the repeated experience of traumatic stress.
We included 98 healthy firefighters with repeated traumatic experiences but without any diagnosis of mental illness and 98 non-firefighter healthy individuals without any history of trauma. Functional connectivity within the fear circuitry, which consists of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), was examined using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Trauma-related symptoms were evaluated using the Impact of Event Scale – Revised.
The firefighter group had greater functional connectivity between the insula and several regions of the fear circuitry including the bilateral amygdalae, bilateral hippocampi and vmPFC as compared with healthy individuals. In the firefighter group, stronger insula–amygdala connectivity was associated with greater severity of trauma-related symptoms (β = 0.36, P = 0.005), whereas higher insula–vmPFC connectivity was related to milder symptoms in response to repeated trauma (β = −0.28, P = 0.01).
The current findings suggest an active involvement of insular functional connectivity in response to repeated traumatic stress. Functional connectivity of the insula in relation to the amygdala and vmPFC may be potential pathways that underlie the risk for and resilience to repeated traumatic stress, respectively.
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent incident findings on brain MRI scans among elderly people and have been consistently implicated in cognitive dysfunction. However, differential roles of WMH by region in cognitive function are still unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the differential role of regional WMH in predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to different subtypes of dementia.
Participants were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. A total of 622 participants with MCI diagnoses at baseline and follow-up evaluations were included for the analysis. Initial MRI scans were rated for WMH on a visual rating scale developed for the CREDOS. Differential effects of regional WMH in predicting incident dementia were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 622 participants with MCI at baseline, 139 patients (22.3%) converted to all-cause dementia over a median of 14.3 (range 6.0–36.5) months. Severe periventricular WMH (PWMH) predicted incident all-cause dementia (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12–3.07). Subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) was predicted by both PWMH (HR 16.14; 95% CI 1.97–132.06) and DWMH (HR 8.77; 95% CI 1.77–43.49) in more severe form (≥ 10 mm).
WMH differentially predict dementia by region and severity. Our findings suggest that PWMH may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially in AD.
Cultivated soybeans [Glycinemax (L.) Merr.] have various flower colours such as dark purple, purple, light purple, pink, magenta, near white and white. About one-third of the soybean accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture – Germplasm Resource Information Network (USDA-GRIN) Soybean Germplasm Collections have white flowers and are the second dominant accessions after the purple-flowered accessions. Earlier studies have shown that the w1 recessive allele of the W1 gene encoding flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase produces white flowers. In the present study, we aimed to understand why the white-flowered accessions have become abundant among the cultivated soybeans and what their genetic and regional origin is. For this purpose, 99 landraces with white flowers and 39 landraces with purple flowers from eight Asian countries and Russia were analysed with regard to the nucleotide sequences of the W1 locus. We not only found that the w1 alleles of the 99 white-flowered landraces were identical to those of the white-flowered Williams 82, but also found that these w1 alleles displayed no polymorphism at all. By carrying out a phylogenetic analysis, we were able to identify a group with W1 alleles from which the w1 allele might have diverged.
The allelic variations at glutenin loci could significantly affect the bread baking quality, and specific glutenin alleles might be closely associated with greater gluten strength, which, in turn, is related to superior bread baking quality. In this study, allelic variations at Glu-1, Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci were evaluated in 222 Korean wheat landraces using gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers. Ten alleles were identified at Glu-1 loci. Glu-A1c, Glu-B1b, and Glu-D1a or Glu-D1f alleles were predominantly found at the respective loci and their frequencies were 86.5, 87.8 and 96.9 %, respectively. Seven Korean wheat landraces carried the Glu-D1d allele, and only one Korean wheat landrace (IT173162) achieved 10 points for the Glu-1 score. Fifteen alleles were identified at Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci; Glu-A3c and Glu-B3d or Glu-B3i alleles were commonly found at the respective loci and their frequencies were 77.0, 33.3 and 37.8 %, respectively. Glu-B3 alleles exhibited the highest genetic diversity than other alleles, while Glu-B1 and Glu-A1 alleles exhibited the lowest genetic diversity than other alleles. Twenty Korean wheat landraces had the Glu-A3d and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3d, Glu-B3f, Glu-B3g or Glu-B3i alleles, which were correlated with superior bread baking quality. Among these wheat lines, two (IT59787 and IT236544) carried the Glu-D1d allele.
Whether an association exists between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and functional recovery after ischemic stroke is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between CMBs and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.
Consecutive patients with acute stroke were enrolled, and all patients were stratified into good and poor functional outcome groups at discharge and 6 months after ischemic stroke by using a modified Rankin Scale score. Cardiovascular risk factors, CMBs, and white matter hyperintensities were compared between these two outcome groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of poor functional outcomes.
A total of 225 patients were enrolled, 121 of whom were classified as having a good functional outcome at discharge and 142 as having a good 6-month functional outcome. The presence of CMBs was associated with a poor functional outcome at discharge [CMBs (+) patients in poor vs. good functional group; 48.1% vs. 30.6%; p=0.007] and 6 months [53.0% vs. 30.3%; p=0.001]. After adjustment for confounding factors, only the presence of infratentorial CMBs was associated with a poor functional outcome at discharge and 6 months. The poor functional outcome group had more CMBs than the good outcome group at 6 months.
Infratentorial cerebral microbleeds were significantly associated with worse functional outcomes not only in the early phase of ischemic stroke but also in the chronic phase. These findings suggest that the presence of infratentorial CMBs can predict poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.
To evaluate the reliability and validity of a standardized measure of healthcare personnel (HCP) influenza vaccination.
Acute care hospitals, long-term care facilities, ambulatory surgery centers, physician practices, and dialysis centers from 3 US jurisdictions.
Staff from 96 healthcare facilities randomly sampled from 234 facilities that completed pilot testing to assess the feasibility of the measure.
Reliability was assessed by comparing agreement between facility staff and project staff on the classification of HCP numerator (vaccinated at facility, vaccinated elsewhere, contraindicated, declined) and denominator (employees, credentialed nonemployees, other nonemployees) categories. To assess validity, facility staff completed a series of case studies to evaluate how closely classification of HCP groups aligned with the measure's specifications. In a modified Delphi process, experts rated face validity of the proposed measure elements on a Likert-type scale.
Percent agreement was high for HCP vaccinated at the facility (99%) and elsewhere (95%) and was lower for HCP who declined vaccination (64%) or were medically contraindicated (64%). While agreement was high (more than 90%) for all denominator categories, many facilities' staff excluded nonemployees for whom numerator and denominator status was difficult to determine. Validity was lowest for credentialed and other nonemployees.
The standardized measure of HCP influenza vaccination yields reproducible results for employees vaccinated at the facility and elsewhere. Adhering to true medical contraindications and tracking decimations should improve reliability. Difficulties in establishing denominators and determining vaccination status for credentialed and other nonemployees challenged the measure's validity and prompted revision to include a more limited group of nonemployees.
The surface structure of Si(111) post-annealed at 980 °C after nitrogen ion induced nitridation has been investigated by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The LEED and STM results indicated the formation of ordered domain of quadruplet structure in the silicon nitride layer. The LEED pattern taken from the nitrated Si(111) surface showed a coexistence of 7×7 domain with quadruplet one. In the STM image taken from the same surface, a three directional periodicity with a periodic arrangement of white protrusions was observed in the local area of silicon nitride island and its symmetry directions were rotated about 10° with respect to those of Si(111) surface. In addition to the quadruplet structure of the silicon nitride island, meta-stable structures such as 9×9, c(4×2), and 2×2 as well as 7×7 phase boundaries were observed to have been formed on the Si(111) surface during the rapid cooling of nitrated surface from the post-annealing temperature of 980 °C. The investigation of the surface structure of nitrated Si(111) showed that the surface nitrated at high temperature had better epitaxial silicon nitride layer than that post-annealed after nitridation at room temperature.
We successfully fabricated a-IGZO TFTs employing a Ti/Cu source/drain (S/D) and SiNx passivation in order to reduce the line-resistance, as compared to most oxide TFTs that use Mo (or TCO) and SiO2 for their S/D and passivation, respectively. Although passivated with SiNx, the TFT exhibits good transfer characteristics without a negative shift. However, the TFT employing a Mo S/D exhibited conductor-like characteristics when passivated with SiNx. Our investigation suggests that the IGZO oxygen vacancies found in the Ti/Cu S/D are controlled, resulting in low concentrations, and so prevent the SiNx-passivated TFT from having a negative shift.
Despite numerous previous studies, relationships between watershed land use and adjacent streams and rivers at various scales in Korea remain unclear. This study investigated the relationships between land uses and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of 720 sites of streams and rivers across the country. The land uses at two spatial scales, including a 1-km buffer and the base watershed management region (BWMR), were computed in a geographical information system (GIS) with a digital land use/land cover map. Characteristics of land uses at two spatial scales were then correlated with the monitored multidimensional characteristics of the streams and rivers. The results of this study indicate that land use types have significant effects on stream and river characteristics. Specifically, most characteristics were negatively correlated with the proportions of urban, rice paddy, agricultural, and bare soil areas and positively correlated with the amount of forest. The site-scale and BWMR-scale analyses suggest that BWMR land use patterns were more strongly related to ecological integrity than they were to site land use patterns. Improving our understanding of land use effects will largely depend on relating the results of site-specific studies that use similar response techniques and measures to evaluate ecological integrity. In addition, our results clearly indicate that the characteristics of streams and rivers are closely linked and that land use types differentially affect those characteristics. Thus, effective restoration and management for ecological integrity of lotic system should consider the physical, chemical, and biological factors in combination.
In May 2009, we investigated a hospital outbreak of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) infection among healthcare personnel (HCP). Thirteen (65%) of 20 HCP with pH1N1 infection had healthcare-associated cases, which were primarily attributed to transmission among HCP. Eleven (55%) of HCP with pH1N1 infection worked for 1 day or more after the onset of illness. Personnel working with mild illness may have contributed to transmission among HCP.
In this study, we synthesized ZnO nanowires using Au catalytic particles formed on a ZnO seed layer. We modulated the microstructure of the ZnO seed layer by changing the sputtering power to investigate how the underlying ZnO film microstructure affects the distribution of ZnO nanowires. Examining the samples after each of the three key steps of the growth process (ZnO seed layer deposition, Au catalytic particle formation, and nanowire growth) using various characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction helped us illuminate the profound impacts of the grain size of the seed layer on the nanowire density.
YMnO3 thin films were sputtered on Si (100) substrates under different ambient conditions. After rapid thermal annealing process at 850 °C, the YMnO3 film deposited in Ar ambient had random orientations and the YMnO3 film deposited in Ar+O2 ambient was crystallized with distinct two layers, i.e., c-axis oriented layer in top region and random oriented layer in bottom region. Relations between the microstructure and the electrical properties of Pt/YMnO3/Si capacitor were investigated. Memory window and leakage current depended on the orientation of the YMnO3 thin films and the interfacial microstructure of the YMnO3/Si, respectively
The microstructural degradation of a lattice-matched Ga0.28 In0.72As0.61P0.39/InP heterointerface during atomic intermixing induced by Zn diffusion has been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. The localized interfacial stress caused by intermixing appears to create stacking faults in the Ga-mixed InP substrate, and dislocation tangles in the In-mixed GalnAsP layer. The results are attributed to the contrasted effect of tensile and compressive stresses upon the nucleation of partial dislocations from both sides of the intermixed interface. A qualitative model is proposed for the homogeneous nucleation of misfit dislocations from the locally stressed interface.
Prior to growth of polyoxide, amorphous-Si with a cap of low temperature oxide was annealed to improve the dielectric property of polyoxide. Current-electric field, critical electric field, critical electric field histogram, and Fowler-Nordheim conduction plot were evaluated. The interface of polyoxide and poly-Si was observed with a transmission electron microscope. The annealing of the amorphous-Si prior to oxidation was effective to improve the dielectric property of the polyoxide.
Field emission characteristics were investigated for zinc oxide nanostructures which were grown on NiO catalyzed silicon (100) substrate by chemical vapor deposition method. The asgrown zinc oxide showed needle-shaped nanostructures with tip diameters of 20∼40 nm and length of 3∼5 νm. The turn-on field was found to be about 6 V/νm at a current density of 1 νA/cm2. After several field emission measurements, the turn-on field was increased up to 8.5 V/νm and the magnitude of field enhancement factor was decreased from 1190 to 940. According to SEM, the tip diameter increase of the zinc oxide to 60 nm was observed after several emission measurements. Therefore, degradation of the field emission characteristic after measurements is attributed to this deformation of the tip shape.
We investigated the solid phase crystallization (SPC) behavior of 1000 Å amorphous Si (a- Si) films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at various temperatures and were able to enhance the grain size of the crystallized polysilicon films using double layers of a-Si filns. The deposition temperature of monolayer a-Si films varied from 200 to 400 °C and the films were recrystallized at 600 °C in nitrogen. As the deposition temperature increased, the incubation time was decreased and both the nucleation rate and growth rate were increased. Especially, the nucleation rate strongly depended on the deposition temperature.
Since the Si-SiO2 interface provides a large number of nucleation sites, it is desirable to suppress nucleation at the interface. As an idea we employed a structure with double layer a-Si films. The bottom a-Si layer deposited at lower temperature could suppress the nucleation at the Si-SiO2 interface while the top a-Si layer deposited at higher temperature could nucleate with a smaller number of nucleation sites. The incubation time and transformation behavior were determined by the deposition temperature of the top layer. As an example, the grain size of the double layer film deposited sequentially at 150 °C and 200 °C enhanced to 1.8 μm while that of the monolayer film deposited at 200 °C was 1.4 μm.
Perovskite La1-xCaxMnO3-δ (LCMO) thin films with a wide range of x, i.e., 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6, were deposited on MgO(001) substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Epitaxial La0.7Ca0.3MnO3-δ/MgO thin films were able to be grown under a condition such as 1.5 ∼ 2.1 J/cm2 of a laser fluence, 650 ∼ 750 °C of a substrate temperature, and 100 ∼ 300 mtorr of an oxygen pressure. X-ray pole figures and electron diffraction pattern showed that the LCMO films were grown epitaxially on MgO(001). Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy measurements investigated that the epitaxial LCMO films have compositions similar to those of targets, demonstrating the PLD is a useful technique to get films with complicated chemical compositions. Various physical properties, including resistance, R, magnetoresistance, ΔR/R(H=0) ≡ (R(H)-R(0))/R(O), and magnetization, M(T), were measured. The LCMO thin films with 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 had both semiconductor-metal and ferromagnetic ordering transitions, whose temperatures are located close to each other. These physical properties were explained in terms of the magnetic polaron model.
Field emissions from the singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) attached on various patterned substrates such as silicon wafer and polymer film, are reported. SWNTs were cut into sub-micron length by sonication in an acidic solution. The SWNT emitters were aligned on Au surface at room temperature by self-assembly monolayer technique. The field emission measurements in a silicon wafer and a polymer film showed that the turn-on fields were 2.8 V/ νm and 3.9 V/ νm at the emission current density of 10 μA/cm2, respectively. The current densities were 0.9 mA/cm2 and 1.6 mA/cm2 at 6.0 V/ νm. This room temperature process is suitable for the fabrication of flexible field emission devices with carbon nanotubes.
Microstructures and interdiffusions of Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si and RuO2/SiO2/Si during annealing in O2 were investigated using x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The degree of oxidation and the interdiffusion of elements have remarkably increased with increasing temperature above 500 °C for the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si case. The generation of Pt hillocks commenced at 500 °C. The Pt-silicide phase was also observed near the TiOx/SiO2 interface. The microstructural variations occurred to only a small amount for the RuO2/SiO2/Si case over the temperature range 300 – 700 °C. While there was no hillock formation, the RuO2 film surface was roughened by the thermal grooving phenomenon. A thin interlayer phase was found at the RuO2/SiO2 interface.